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Population, Living Standards, and the Environment

Socials 11 Geography Unit
by

edward ewacha

on 2 February 2015

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Transcript of Population, Living Standards, and the Environment

Socials 11 Geography
Population & Demographics

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Population Pyramids
Population: Canada and the World
A graph that shows the AGE and SEX structure of a country's population.
Four Types
Early Expanding
High Birth Rate & High Death Rate
Expanding:
High Birth Rate, Lower Death Rate
Stable:
Birth and Death Rates in balance
Contracting:
Developing Country
Developing Country
Developed Country
Developed Country
Birth Rate
lower
than Death Rate.
Cohorts
Refers to each bar
Each Bar = 5 year span
In 1951, 1:10 over 65
By 2020, 1: 5 over 65
Canada's getting older
Canada relies on Immigration to keep its population steady
If a population gets too old or young, its Dependency Ratio increases
Dependency Ratio
The number of people being supported in a population by the working age group.
Terminology
Population Distribution
Where people are spread around the earth
Ecumene: Permanently inhabited places
Population density: # of people in a given area
Physical and Human Factors affect settlement
Climate, Water, and Soils
Communications and Development
Nutritional Density: How much nutrition in calories can be produced by an area of land.
An area that can grow food all year round, has a higher nutrition density than a place with cold winter seasons.
China or Canada?
Egypt or Australia?
Crude Density: The Area of a country divided by its population.
HDI = Adult Literacy, Life expectancy, & GDP
Living Standards
UN compiles a Human Development Index (HDI)
Total value of goods and services produced in a country in one year, divided by the population
Developed
Developing
Industrialized, people well housed, healthy & educated
No modern infrastructure or Industries
HIPC: Highly Indebted Poor Countries
Countries at the bottom of the HDI are usually former colonies and heavily in debt to their former masters.
What are some problems with using GDP in the HDI?
Wealth might be held by a minority & not shared with the general pop. ie Saudi Arabia.
Barter economies are not taken into account
Cost of living can drastically differ within a country ie Average house costs: New Brunswick 149k to Vancouver 752k
Burden of DEBT - The Real Screw
Post WWII: UN International Monetary Fund &
World Bank
Provide loans & assistance to developing nations to improve standards of living.
Western Banks loan $ to developing nations
(Newly independent colonies) exporting resources
1960s
Then the markets collapsed and prices of resources dwindled
Repaying the loans became difficult
Western banks had IMF & World Bank lend the money to pay off the loans
"This is what you're going to do....."
IMF made developing nations "restructure" their economies to ensure payment. Mainly grow "Cash Crops"
Multinational companies now control the cash crops being grown by developing nations by being the only customer
!
Ghana produces 70% of worlds Cocoa, but only 4 customers who control the price. So little profit for Ghana can be made.
Foreign Aid
Multilateral Aid: Funded by more than one government. Often to fund major infrastructure projects
Tied Aid: Given with conditions.
We'll lend you money IF you buy 30% of your goods from us.
Government Agency:
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) & UN
Who gives?
Non Governmental Agencies (NGO):
Oxfam, Rotary Club and Religious institutions like the Salvation Army
Old People
Babies
Young adults
Really Old People
Number people of the female persuasion
Number of people in the male category
Demographic Transition Model
Full transcript