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HIV / AIDS Among Homosexual & Bisexual Men

LGBT 200 - 0201 Project
by

Betty Bui

on 11 December 2013

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Transcript of HIV / AIDS Among Homosexual & Bisexual Men

HIV / AIDS Among
Homosexual & Bisexual Men

Methods of Inheriting (cont.)
Researchers have pointed out that vaginal intercourse with an infected person results in a transmission rate of 0.077 percent per sex act, however between individuals engaging in anal sex, that risk rises to 1.4 percent per sex act, an 18-fold increase ("Hiv risk during," 2010) .

Thus, since gay men are much more likely than heterosexual men to engage in anal intercourse, it makes sense that they would experience much higher rates of HIV/AIDS then those men who identify as heterosexual.

We can see this statistically, as gay men represent approximately 1% of the total US population, however they account for over half of all new HIV/AID infections every year.
Healthcare
Availability
One of the biggest burdens of a person living with HIV/AIDS is the cost of treatment




Through engagement in each aspect of the health care plan, the patient is then “engaged” in their own care.

These methods of contraction include through sexual intercourse and sexual contact, drug use, pregnancy and childbirth, occupational exposure, and Blood/Organ transplant.
However, the main methods of contraction that affect those within the LGBT are the first two, sexual contact and drug use, however there is an interesting situation regarding Blood/Organ Transplant that will be discussed in a little bit.
Conclusion
Betty Bui...Chardai Stokes...Trevor Mills... Kayla Kight...Sara Gabriel
What is HIV/AIDS?
Methods of Inheriting
Awareness--
Homosexual & Bisexual Men are the highest risk group in today's society for HIV/AIDS
Dis
crim
inat
ion
“Gay men were frequently singled out for abuse as they were seen as responsible for the AIDS epidemic,” (National Aids Trust, 2003
Stigma towards gay men:
The sexual transmission of HIV amongst gay men (GRIDS)
Pre-existing negative attitudes and beliefs towards men who have sex with men (Religion)
The association of gay sex with behaviours regarded as “deviant.” Gay men are often seen as “deserving” to be HIV positive.
Social & Psychological Impact--
Reagan
During the Reagan administration, Majority of Reagan’s supporters were Christian Republican conservations
This time period funding for HIV/AIDS were less than one million dollars
Since the government turned their heads on educating people on trying to prevent them from getting this rapid illness, more people were getting infected

Keith
Haring
At that time period one of the people that got infected was a Gay artist named Keith Haring
During the time he was infected by he started drawing powerful art that visualized the pain this virus caused him
In addition to that he started up the Keith Haring foundation that funded other HIV/ AIDS organizations, and started to educate the minds of the youth
When Mr. Haring past away his artwork was shown all over the world and till this day is highly shown in a lot of AIDS organizations

Healthcare
Availability
In 2006, the estimated cost of HIV care was $23,000 and in 2010 had increased to an estimated cost of $379,668
Some males separated their sexual health care from their standard care labeled, fragmentation while others choose to receive all health care in the same location which is described as consolidation
these preferences are then separated into 4 typologies
The Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act
Signed March 23, 2010
This Act reinsured that people could not be denied any sort of healthcare services with any preconditions like HIV/AIDS.
“Secure, stable, affordable health insurance”
Public & Private health insurance companies neglect or abuse pre-conditions

Affects Individual's mental & emotional well-being. Increased levels of:
loneliness
anxiety
depression
suicidal ideals
social withdrawal
(Study of Australian HIV+ men) - "Social Segregation"
Human Immunodeficiency Virus better known as HIV
attacks T-Cells and CD4
invades the cells making copies of itself then killing the host cell
Overtime so many destroyed cells that HIV turns into AIDS
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
last stage of HIV
immune system is completely compromised
History
Scientist believe HIV came from a type of chimpanzee in West Africa
first recognized in 1981 when CDC reported group of gay men in LA had a rare lung disease
Pneumocystis Crinii Pneumonia (PCP)
also suffered from other infections
first official reporting
First use of the term AIDS was in 1982 by the CDC
reported that most infections are in homosexual men with multiple sexual partners
Statistics
Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) only represent 2% of the U.S. population
In 2010 represent 72% of new HIV infections in people between the ages of 13-24
30% of new infections among all MSM
estimated 489,121 people living with HIV in U.S are MSM
CDC
Healthcare Availability
Counseling for HIV Patients and Partners
Heath centers provide departments who offer assistance from Partner Services when telling partners about exposure and safety
services are free to HIV patients and their partners
the staff provides testing, counseling and remains confidential mong the department

Commitment from health care providers is crucial

Care for Youth
The Society of Adolescent Health and Medicine and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) have four major steps for transitioning youth with chronic diseases to adult health care in order to successfully provide guidance on health care and transferring medical information
1. Create a formal policy to prepare to transition
2. Introduce policy to patient for modifications and clarifications
3. Initiation to adult healthcare- introduction to prospective provider
4. Documerntation and evaluation of the transition
Symptoms:
fever
chills
joint pain
muscle ache
sore throat
sweats (particularly at night)
enlarged glands
a red rash
tiredness
weakness
weight loss
Methods of Inheriting
(cont.)
Gay men also disproportionately represent the number of drug users amongst the population, as studies indicate that gay men use illicit substances at a rate ranging from 20-30 percent, whereas straight men use such substances at a rate of only 9 percent.

This also makes it more likely for homosexual men to contract HIV/AIDS at a higher rate than heterosexual men, as they represent a higher rate of intravenous drug users than heterosexual men, typically using drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine.
Methods of Inheriting
(cont.)
As I touched on earlier, homosexual men find themselves in an interesting situation with regards to blood donation.

Men who have admitted to sexual activity with other men are prohibited from donating blood by law.

Many have said this is discriminatory, since it targets a class of people entirely rather than those infected. Especially with modern science it becomes much easier to target those with HIV/AIDS and eliminate their samples from being donating rather than just homosexuals in general.
As I touched on earlier, homosexual men find themselves in an interesting situation with regards to blood donation.

Men who have admitted to sexual activity with other men are prohibited from donating blood by law.

Many have said this is discriminatory, since it targets a class of people entirely rather than those infected. Especially with modern science it becomes much easier to target those with HIV/AIDS and eliminate their samples from being donating rather than just homosexuals in general.
GRIDS
Gay-related immunodeficiency disease
Sometimes called the gay plague.
Name first used to describe the 1982 AIDS plague
Physicians even expressed that homosexual men should no longer engage in sexual acts because of the epidemic
References
Act Against AIDS, (2013). Linking Patients to Care. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website:http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/prevention/ongoing/costeffectiveness/

Altman, L. (1982, May 11). New homosexual disorder worries health officials. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1982/05/11/science/new-homosexual-disorder-worries-health-officials.html

Bourne A., Dodds C., Keogh P., Weatherburn P., Hammond G. Relative safety II: Risk and unprotected anal intercourse among gay men with diagnosed HIV. 2009. Sigma Research. Retrieved from http://www.sigmaresearch.org.uk/files/report2009d.pdf.

Chakraborty, R., & Van Dyke, R. B. (2013). Transitioning HIV-Infected Youth Into Adult Health Care. Pediatrics, 132(1), 192-197. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1073

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, (2013). Hiv among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/gender/msm/facts/index.html

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, (2013). Living with HIV. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/living/index.html

Dukers-Muijrers, N. M., Somers, C., Hoebe, C. A., Lowe, S. H., Niekamp, A. M., Oude Lashof, A., & ... Vrijhoef, H. M. (2012). Improving sexual health for HIV patients by providing a combination of integrated public health and hospital care services; a one-group pre- and post test intervention comparison. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 1118-1126. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-1118

Effective Interventions, Couples HIV Testing and Counseling retrieved from https://www.effectiveinterventions.org/en/HighImpactPrevention/PublicHealthStrategies/CHTC.aspx

HIV/AIDS Basics, (2013). Staying Healthy with HIV/AIDS: Taking Care of Yourself . Retrieved from AIDS.gov website: http://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/staying-healthy-with-hiv-aids/taking-care-of-yourself/doctor-clinic-and-dental-visits/index.html

HIV risk during anal sex 18 times higher than during vaginal sex. (2010, June 28). Retrieved from http://www.aidsmap.com/HIV-transmission-risk-during-anal-sex-18-times-higher-than-during-vaginal-sex/page/1446187/

Kern, R., & Forman, A. (2013). Stigma and Salvation: Advertising HIV Awareness in New York City: A Case Study. Journal Of Homosexuality, 60(8), 1143-1159. doi:10.1080/00918369.2013.776427

Koester, Kimberly A., et al. "Sexual Healthcare Preferences Among Gay And Bisexual Men: A Qualitative Study In San Francisco, California." Plos ONE 8.8 (2013): 1-11. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Dec. 2013.

Lea, T., Prestage, G., Mao, L., Zablotska, I., Wit, J., & Holt, M. (2013). Trends in drug use among gay and bisexual men in Sydney, Melbourne and Queensland, Australia. Drug & Alcohol Review, 32(1), 39-46. doi:10.1111/j.1465-3362.2012.00494.x

Levine, D. A. (2013). Office-Based Care for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth. Pediatrics, 132(1), 198-203. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1282

National Aids Trust. (2003). Hiv/aids stigma and discrimination: Gay men. Retrieved from http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/HIVAIDS Stigma and Discrimination Gay Men.pdf

National Gay Men’s HIV/AIDS Awareness Day CDC retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/Features/NGMHAAD/

Smit, P. J., Brady, M., & Carter, M. (2011). Hiv-related stigma within communities of gay men: A literature review (10.1080/09540121.2011.613910). Retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Information website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3379736/

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (2012). How do you get hiv or aids?. Retrieved from website: http://aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids-101/how-you-get-hiv-aids/

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (2012). Sexual Risk Factors. Retrieved from website: http://aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids-101/sexual-risk-factors/

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, (2013). The affordable care act and hiv/aids. Retrieved from website: http://aids.gov/federal-resources/policies/health-care-reform/

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Hiv among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. Retrieved from website: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/gender/msm/

Valdiserrt, R. O., Lyter, D., Leviton, L. C., Callahan, C. M., Kingsley, L. A., & Rinaldo, C. R. (1988). Variables Influencing Condom Use in a Cohort of Gay and Bisexual Men. American Journal Of Public Health, 78(7), 801-805.
507 interviewees openly reported that there is a "loss of intimacy and avoidance of particular social spaces and activities because they felt self-conscious about their appearance and/or feared rejection"
(Study of United Kingdom HIV+ men) - "Rejection"
618 interviewees openly reported that they were more concerned about "the possibility of rejection by sexual partners following disclosure of their HIV status." This feeling of rejection of relationships may cause further damage to self-esteem and self-confidence
-The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
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