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Interactive Timeline

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Andrew McKinnon

on 19 June 2015

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Transcript of Interactive Timeline

Colliding Narratives
American population was undergoing a dramatic shift in national identity. The switch from the Rural Ideal to the Industrial ideal was in full swing. The emerging plot line was a commitment to technology, cultural superiority, and vertical growth of urban areas, as opposed to the old views of expansion (Dykins-Callahan, "Industrial Revolution").
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
When 146 workers were killed in the factory's fire, it allowed for an immediate social response for working culture reform. The tragedy gave insight to the large disparity between rich and poor, along with the continuation of long-standing labor and social reform issues.
20s Begin to Roar
A Tool to Unify a Nation
When it All Came Down
Dust In The Wind
Severe droughts and high winds in the southwest plains caused the frequently occurring dust storms from 1934-1935. The region would come to be known as the dust bowl.
President Eisenhower Farewell Speech
On Januray 17, 1961 President Dwight Eisenhower delivered his farewell speech from the Oval office to the American people on television. In his speech he warned about the Military-Industrial Complex.
Works Cited
The highway of American Culture
Interstate
20th Century
Exits 1890 - 1911
Industrialization, and the Progressive Era
Mile
1900
The Rural Ideal of American progress
Industrial Ideal of American Progress
Mile
1911
Picture inside charred Triangle Shirtwaist Factory from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/introduction/triangle-intro/
Mile
1914
Beginning of the Great war
European powers fought over control of boundaries, influence of power, and colonial areas in other continents. The U.S. funding and exporting materials to allied nations began the country's deviance from the popular isolationism it held for many years. Popular belief as to what ignited the war was the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand. The war would rage on without the U.S. until 1917 after President Wilson used the sinking of the Loconia, as justification for U.S. involvement (Dykins-Callahan, "World War 1: The Basics").
Laguerre County
Mile
1892
The Homestead Strike
The Homestead Strike was a perfect example of the large labor unrest associated with the Progressive Era. Many confrontations such as this one were a result of increased tensions between the elite class and working poor, due to pay cuts and unskilled labor forced from the advancement of mechanization in industry ( Dykins-Callahan, "Brink of Class Warfare").
Source: National Police Gazette, July 23, 1892—Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.
The mill was owned by steel business tycoon Andrew Carnegie. He gave consent to the manager of Homestead, Henry Frick, to hire guards from the Pinkerton National Detective Agency as strikebreakers ("An Awful Battle", historymatters.gmu.edu). The strike turned into a bloody battle between the two sides, and eventually the state militia of Pennsylvania interjected. In the end the strike was ended along with the once powerful union of workers.
In the lower right corner of the sketch, women can be seen participating in strike. Homestead was an entire village based around the mill and so the strike dealt with more than strictly labor issues. The living conditions for entire families was equally as sub-standard. Margret Byington, a member of the Russel Sage Foundation, wrote in her report,
Homestead: Households of a Mill Town
, "The kitchen, perhaps 15 by 12 feet, was steaming with vapor from a big washtub set on a chair in the middle of the room. The mother was trying to wash and at the same time to keep the older of her two babies from tumbling into the tub full of scalding water that was standing on the floor," (Byington, Outside Looking In).
Turkson County
Exits 1914 - 1928
The Great War and into the New Era
Picture of a newspaper clipping from, The Daily Telegraph, reporting the assassination of Archduke of Austria, Franz Ferdinand from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/history/world-war-one
Mile
1919
WWI ends with Treaty of Versailles
Mile
1917
The experiences of a monotonous war
"Polish Infantry of the German Army in East Prussia Advance Over Flat Ground in Extended Order Firing From Individual Rifle Pits." New York Times, November 22, 1914" from: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/rotogravures/rototime1.html
The vastly popular style of warfare during the Great War was in the trenches. The trenches would run for ,"about 25,000 miles, equal to a trench sufficient to circle the earth," (Fussell, "The Trench Scene").
A picture of Erich Maria Remarque and his timeless WWI novel from: http://www.nyu.edu/library
Erich Remarque's 1928 novel, All Quiet On The Western Front, was based off of his first hand experience of fighting in the Great War for the German Army. His novel gained tremendous popularity in the U.S., and highlights the plight and repercussions of this epic war. The novel was just another look into why the war caused more disillusionment and brought an end to the Progressive Era (Dykins-Callahan, "First Red Scare").
John Gast, American Progress, 1872. Source: http://picturinghistory.gc.cuny.edu/item.php?item_id=180
Representation of American Progress Mulberry Street. Source: http://pages.ramapo.edu/~theed
Newspaper clipping of Peace Congress where Treaty of Versailles was held. Source: https://www.gilderlehrman.org/sites/default/files/content-images/00752p1_3.jpg
The treaty ended effectively ended the war in the spring of 1919 at the Paris Peace Conference (Gilder Lehrman Institute, "Treaty of Versailles"). The treaty would cause the once powerful nation of Germany to cripple in the looming Depression years. Many believe Article 231 of the treaty had the most adverse effect on the German nation. The article essentially demanded Germany take full credit for initiating the war, and to effectively demilitarize and reduce military resources as payment for its punishment (U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, "Treaty of Versailles, 1919").
Mile
1925
Russell Patterson's, Where there's smoke there's fire, is a clear depiction of the changing morals of women during the 20s. This is an example of the new morality for women, exploring their freedom, breaking traditional restrictions, and expressing sexuality (Dykins-Callahan, "New Era & Urbanization"). Also, it shows how sex in art became a widely used theme during the time as a way of moving past the woes of WWI and back to fundamental experience (Dykins-Callahan, "Art & The New Era").
Russell Patterson: Where there's smoke there's fire, ca. 1925. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division)
The 20s saw a major shift in self identity. Style and personality were prioritized over an individual's character because they could be judged quickly (Dykins-Callahan, "Mass Culture"). Products were now being advertised as things the public lacked from their lives, they needed and deserved to have in order to meet the standard of self image (Callahan, "Mass Culture").
Photo from: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/coolhtml/ccpres04.html
Photo of 20s cigarette ad from: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/07/business/media/07adco.html?_r=0
Mile
1927
Emergence of a Hero
The 20s were a time ripe with heroes in the eye of the American public. Americans found comfort in the ritualistic preservation of the old ideal these heroes provided, especially in sports (Nash, "Mood of the people"). There was no bigger hero, perhaps, than the man who came to be known as, "The Sultan of Swat." Babe Ruth was the hero every American sports fan needed. The game of baseball seemed to revolve around him. And the home runs he hit seemed capable of revolving around the earth.
Even the most experienced journalists such as Grantland Rice; who had seen the likes of Jack Dempsey; composed a poem in his awe of the dominance of Babe Ruth.
http://matrix.msu.edu/hst/hst324/s6/mats/baseball.html
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/august-16-1948-babe-ruth
When you lean upon the ball
And lay the seasoned ash against it,
The ball park is a trifle small,
No matter how far out they've fenced it.
Past master of the four-base clout,
You stand and take your wallop proudly -
A pretty handy bloke about,
I'll say you are ... and say it loudly.

I've seen a few I thought could hit,
Who fed the crowd on four-base rations;
But you, Babe, or the only it -
The rest are merely imitations.
I've seen them swing with all they've got
And tear into it for a mop-up;
But what they deem a lusty swat
To you is a futile pop-up.

Somewhere amid another throng,
Where fate at times became unruly,
I've heard Big Bertha sing a song
Without an encore for yours truly,
Yes, she had something - so to speak -
A range you couldn't get away with
But when you nail one on the beak
They need another ball to play with.

Political and social leaders had long been attempting to unify the nation. This vision finally began to fall into place when the radio became a common item in nearly half the homes in America. "Through a system of culturally uplifting music and educational shows, radio programmers hoped that the would help to create a new American people," (Creating Mass CUlture, xroads.virginia.edu). With 40% of family households owning a radio, American people were given the ability to share a common experience (Dykins-Callahan, "Mass Culture").
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/jazz/jb_jazz_radio_3_e.html
"We wake up in the middle of the night. The earth booms.
Heavy fire is falling on us. We crouch into corners. We
distinguish shells of every calibre.
Each man lays hold of his things and looks again every
minute to reassure himself that they are still there. The dugout
heaves, the night roars and flashes. We look at each other
in the momentary flashes of light, and with pale faces and
pressed lips shake our heads."
Excerpt from All Quiet, source: http://www.nyu.edu/library
Mile
1928
McKinnon County
Exits 1929-1945
An Era of Depression and a Secod World War
It came to be known as, "Black Thursday", when the stock exchange encountered a record number of shares traded on October 24, 1929 (Stock Market Crash, historychannel.com). By the following Tuesday the market had completely collapsed, marking the beginning of the Great Depression.
Newspaper clipping headlining the crash on Wall Street from: http://www.history.com/topics/1929-stock-market-crash
Mile
1929
Farmer looking for rain during droughts of 1934-1935 from Library of Congress gallery
Truck trying to out run a dust storm: http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/depression/dustbowl.htm
"March 16
1935 Temp. went from 82 to 24 today. The dust wave blew allnight, at times could not see, everything covered with dirt. Dried the clothes in the bath room, got them ironed, Another war scare in Europe Max was here all P.M. Several deaths & accidents from the Dust storms, trains were late."
Mable Holmes was a Kansas Native during the dust storms of the Great Depression. One of her journal entries of the storms is seen below. Source: http://www.kansasmemory.org/item/210784/text
Mile
1934
Audio Recording of 1928 radio broadcast from:
https://archive.org/details/1920s78Recordings
Mile
1935
Implementing Social Security
It nas taken the rapid industrialization of the last few decades, with its mass-production methods, to teach us that a man might become a victim of circumstances far beyond his control, and finally it "took a depression to dramatize for us the appalling insecurity of the great mass of the population, and to stimulate interest in social insurance in the United States." We have come to learn that the large majority of our citizens must have protection against the loss of income due to unemployment, old age, death of the breadwinners and disabling accident and illness, not only on humanitarian grounds, but in the interest of our National welfare. If we are to maintain a healthy economy and thriving production, we need to maintain the standard of living of the lower income groups in our population who constitute 90 per cent of our purchasing power.
While President Roosevelt constructed the well known work relief programs of the New Deal, he also made a number of legislative turnovers to revamp the economy and American Moral. His Secretary of Labor, Frances Perkins, and the rest of the Committee on Economic Security proposed the first drafted plan of social security for American people (Social Insurance For U.S., ssa.gov).
Image take from the official Social Security Website: http://www.ssa.gov/history/perkinsradio.html
Perkins boor witness to the Triangle Shirtwaist fire in 1911, which is believed to have caused part of her pursuit in protection of American workers (Perkins: The Force Behind Social, rooseveltinstitute.org). The speech she gave on the radio about the proposed bill for social security can be see within her picture....
Mile
1939
World War Once More
Adolf Hitler and his Nazi party were leading Germany back to international prominence, but not like any had anticipated. His fascist style of governance put the world on course for another epic war. The second world war began in 1939 when Germany began heavily bombing Poland. It did not take long for France and England to declare war on Germany.
Up close picture of Adolf Hitler via: http://www.nydailynews.com/news
A map of the initial German advance into Poland from
Time Magazine's
website
timedotcom.files.wordpress.com/2014/08/poland
Mile
1941
Bombing of Pearl Harbor
On 7 December, 1941, Japan launched a full scale bombing raid on the U.S. Naval fleet in Pear Harbor, Hawaii. The attack effectively brought the U.S. into the war in Europe and in the Pacific.
Image of the US Arizona sinking in the harbor. The ship was the largest in the American fleet before it was sunk. Courtesy of the National World War II Museum
The video containing this image can be viewed by following the link provided (playable with silverlight/windowsmedia plug-ins): http://libx.bsu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/WWIIHstFlm/id/55
Mile
1944
Red Tails
African Americans were beginning to be trained for war aviation by 1941, in Tuskegee, Alabama. These African Americans were the first to serve as airmen in the U.S. armed forces, and their success was key to the end of segregation in the U.S. military (Tuskegee Airmen, history.com)
Videos credited from: http://www.fords.org/home/performances-events/2012-2013-theatre-season/tuskegee-airmen-resources
332d Fighter Group of the Tuskegee Airmen
via: http://www.tuskegee.edu/about_us/legacy_of_fame/tuskegee_airmen.aspx
A signature plane flown by the Tuskegee Airmen, with its distinct red tail which became an alternative name for the pilots.

source: http://www.tuskegee.edu/about_us/legacy_of_fame/tuskegee_airmen.aspx
Mile
1945
V.E. Day
On 8 May, 1945, the German surrender was complete in the western European countries (Victory in Europe, history.com). Fighting did continue for a few more days against Russia, but in major American cities the victory in Europe was celebrated on large public scale out in the streets.
Photo of Americans celebrating German defeat in Time Square courtesy of the National World War II Museum.

http://www.nationalww2museum.org/learn/education
Mile
1945
No Other Choice?
Confrontation with the Japanese continued well into 1945. U.S. forces were slowly closing in on the island of Japan, but President Truman was faced with a dilemma. Would he sacrifice more American lives in an attempt to invade the island? Or, would he make the decision to drop the world's first atomic bomb on another nation? Truman chose the ladder, and on August 6, 1945, the U.S. bomber, Enola Gay, dropped a 5 ton nuclear weapon on the city of Hiroshima (Atomic bomb dropped, history.com). Three days later a second bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki (Atomic bomb, history.com). Roughly over 100,000 people died in the two bombings. The dropping of the bombs were marinated in controversy, and many intellects of the time believed it would bring about a destructive nuclear age (and they may have been right on the money). These events can be argued as the underlining foundation for the Cold War.
One of the men who worked on the atomic bombs, scientist Robert R. Wilson, gave this opinion about how the American public viewed the bombings:

"A specter is haunting this country--the specter of nuclear energy. As a scientist who worked on the atomic bomb, I am appalled that the public is so apathetic and so uninformed about the dangerous social consequences of our development. There is no secret of the atomic bomb. In my opinion, in two to five years other countries can also manufacture bombs, and bombs tens, hundreds, or even thousands of times more effective than those which produced such devastation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This country with its concentrated industrial centers is entirely vulnerable to such weapons; nor can we count on, or even expect, effective counter-measures. Unless strong action is taken within the near future toward a positive control, this country will be drawn into an armament race which will inevitably end in catstrophe for all participants. . . . It is the responsibility of the press to stimulate public discussion on this vital matter and to educate the people as rapidly as possible. Where security permits, my colleagues are eager to help with scientific information. It was our hope in developing the bomb that it would be a great force for world cooperation and peace."
The bomb, "Little Boy," dropped on the city of Hiroshima

source: http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/
The bomb, "Fat Man," dropped on Nagasaki

Source: http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/
Nagasaki the day after the atomic bomb

Source: http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/
This video gives a more detailed account of the atomic bombs via the Footage Archive
Wood County
Exits 1950-1965
Mile
1951
Mile
1961
The video of the full President Eisenhowers Farewell Speech
Duck and Cover
The Federal Civil Defense Administration created a civil defense pamphlet that was also a film. This program was aimed towards children to make sure that they are safer in a nuclear attack
The Duck and Cover Film
Picture of the Duck and Cover Pamphlet
http://www.ohs.org/education/oregonhistory/historical_records/dspDocument.cfm?doc_ID=CBD9A0CB-9020-5BBE-6AD0AB659BBE0E1F
Mile
1950
Internal Security Act of 1950
Also known as the McCarran Act, this act made practicing communism illegal and allowed for investigation and deportation of immigrants who were suspected on espionage while also limiting free speech. President Truman voted to veto this act, but Congress passed it.
Photo of President Truman
http://www.villages-news.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Harry-Truman.jpg?8f924e

President Truman opposed the McCarran Act and actually vetoed it. He believed that it “would make a mockery of our Bill of Rights [and] would actually weaken our internal security measures."
The end of WWII and cold war
Mile
1954
NBC Hosts the first Tonight Show
Steve Allen's Opening Monologue to the first
Tonight
show episode
In September on 1954, NBC begin airing a new show called the
Tonight
show, which was the first talk program. Steve Allen was the first to host the show, opening the episode while sitting at a piano Steve Allen said "this program is going to go on... forever." Which at the time was talking about the time of the show which ran from 11:30 pm to 1:00 am., while this show still runs this day. For decades this show went to be one of the most watched shows.
Mile
1965
Medicare and Medicaid
On July 30, 1965 President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Social Secuirty Acts Amendments. Medicare started a program where persons aged 65 or older, had hospital and medical insurance to aid the elderly in paying health care bills. It was funded by taxing employees on their earnings, with some employers contributing.
Photo of President Johnson signing the bill with Harry Truman
https://www.whitehouse.gov/health-care-in-america
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=99
Photo of the Medicare Bill
Photos of the papers President Eisenhower used for his speech
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=90
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=90
"An Awful battle at Homestead, Pa." National Police Gazette, July 23, 1892—Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress
John Gast, American Progress, 1872. Source: http://picturinghistory.gc.cuny.edu/item.php?item_id=180
Picture inside charred Triangle Shirtwaist Factory from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/introduction/triangle-intro/
The Daily Telegraph, reporting the assassination of Archduke of Austria, Franz Ferdinand from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/history/world-war-one
"Polish Infantry of the German Army in East Prussia Advance Over Flat Ground in Extended Order Firing From Individual Rifle Pits." New York Times, November 22, 1914" from: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/rotogravures/rototime1.html
A picture of Erich Maria Remarque and his timeless WWI novel from: http://www.nyu.edu/library
Newspaper clipping of Peace Congress where Treaty of Versailles was held. Source: https://www.gilderlehrman.org/sites/default/files/content-images/00752p1_3.jpg
Russell Patterson: Where there's smoke there's fire, ca. 1925. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division)
Photo from: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/coolhtml/ccpres04.html
Photo of 20s cigarette ad from: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/07/business/media/07adco.html?_r=0
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/august-16-1948-babe-ruth
http://matrix.msu.edu/hst/hst324/s6/mats/baseball.html
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/jazz/jb_jazz_radio_3_e.html
Audio Recording of 1928 radio broadcast from:
https://archive.org/details/1920s78Recordings
Newspaper clipping headlining the crash on Wall Street from: http://www.history.com/topics/1929-stock-market-crash
Farmer looking for rain during droughts of 1934-1935 from Library of Congress gallery
Truck trying to out run a dust storm: http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/depression/dustbowl.
htm
Source: http://www.kansasmemory.org/item/210784/text
Image take from the official Social Security Website: http://www.ssa.gov/history/perkinsradio.html
Full transcript