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Colonial Leaders

Details the lives of leaders of the 13 colonies.
by

Kale Blickenstaff

on 10 November 2015

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Transcript of Colonial Leaders

William Bradford
Self taught scholar
Chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in yearly elections
Worried about "Strangers" corrupting Separatists beliefs
John Winthrop
Wealthy attorney and lord in England
Puritan / not a Pilgrim
1st governor of MA
Serves for 19 yrs
Leader through the 1630's including the "Great Migration"
Characteristics of New England settlements
Low Mortality - 70 yrs avg
6 child avg
Avg age at marriage - 22 f / 27 m
Roger Williams
Puritan "rebel"
Argued for a full break with Anglican Church
Argued for separation of church and state
Condemned Puritan leaders for not dealing fairly with the Indians
Found guilty of preaching "new and dangerous ideas"
Fled to RI to establish competing colony
Helped by Naragansett Indians in establishing Providence
Allows Universal Male Sufferage and complete religious freedom
RI becomes known as "The Sewer" by the Puritans
Anne Hutchinson
Intelligent, strong-willed, well-spoken
Threat to Patriarchal control
Antinomianism - God's grace overrides any moral law
Just because you follow the law doesn't mean you get into heaven
Put on trial for HERESY in 1638
Says she recieved her beliefs directly from God
Was banished - Where would she go?
Killed by a band of Indians in NY - Winthrop said this was God's Justice
Metacom
"King Phillip" to whites
First real native resistance since Pequot Wars in the 1630's
Massasoit's son - united NE tribes to halt white encroachment
Destroyed white settlements pushing them back to Boston
Native success short lived as thousands are killed in response
Metacom beheaded, drawn and quartered, and his family was sold into slavery
Early Leaders of the English Colonies
Characteristics of Middle Colony settlements
Better climate, rainfall, and soil than NE
"Breadbasket" colonies = wheat, corn, rye
Peter Stuyvesant
Put in charge of growing New Netherland colony
Added land by taking over New Sweden
Blocks England from controlling all of Atlantic coast
Charles II tells his brother Duke of York, "If you can take it, you can have it."
Citizens tired of harsh rule from Stu and surrender without a shot fired
Berkley & Carteret
The Duke of York gave the southern lands to his buds who name the area after Jersey, England
They treat the Dutch fairly and most choose to stay
To entice settlers they offer cheap land
William Penn
Charles II owed $ to Penn family and paid in land
Name means "Penn's Woodlands"
Wanted a refuge for his people - "Quakers"
Persecuted in England for beliefs
All are = in the eyes of God
No slavery
Freedom of speech, religion, and trial by jury
No FIGHTING
Had the most peaceful relations with Natives
Citizens of Delaware
Got tired of having to travel all the way to Philadelphia for town meetings, so they asked Penn if they could make their own colony and he said yes
John Wheelright
Defends Hutchinson's views
Forced to leave MA by Winthrop
Founds Exeter, New Hampshire in 1638
Becomes its own colony in 1680
Thomas Hooker
Also disagreed w/ Winthrop's leadership
Leaves MA headed south on the CT River in 1639
Founds Hartford, Connecticut
Begins Fundamental Orders of CT
Becomes its own colony in 1662
Characteristics of Southern Colony Settlements
Indentured servants
Slaves worked large plantations
Fertile soil - tobacco, rice, indigo
Largest cities - Charleston, Savannah, Baltimore
Lord Baltimore
Charles II gives Maryland to George Calvert
He dies and his son takes the title of Lord Baltimore
Catholics persecuted in England needed a safe haven
Established for Catholics, but allowed all Christians to settle
Act of Toleration
8 English Nobles
James Oglethorpe
Wanted a place for debtors to get a fresh start
Put into prisons for not paying debts
Provides buffer zone from Spanish Florida and eased crowded prisons
Origianlly banned slavery and alcohol
Colony does not grow rapidly because of this
Started as an experiment in social classes
Experiment failed and the colony splits
Wealthy headed South for deep water ports
Known for slavery and plantations
Poor stay in the North
Small tobacco farms
Massachusetts Bay
Rhode Island
Connecticut
New Hampshire
New Netherlands
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Maryland
The Carolinas
Georgia
Full transcript