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Transcript of module 1
Prehistoric Dress Bifurcated
Garments These are pictures that illustrate
bifurcated garments. As you
can see in each picture, everyone
is wearing what we now call
"pants" or "jeans". As you can see
these garments cover the legs
and allow movement. They can come in any size
and are available for adults and children. Coat Garments The Coat garment is a t-shaped tunic
with an opening in the front. These
pictures illustrate that this type of
garment is present as a jacket as well
as a cardigan. Here, my friend Keisla and I illustrate
an example of what a non-sewn draped
garment can look like. Scarves are draped
on the body and we generally use them
for survival against the cold winters in NYC!
However, there are other types of draped
garments such as throws or anything that
can be pinned or folded to the body. Draped Garment When we think of the word "poncho"
we usually visualize rainy days and
wear, but as you can see in the photo,
a poncho is any garment with a hole
to fit the neck. It can take any body
shape and can be made of any material. Ponchos T-shaped
Garments T-shaped garments are in my
opinion the most used garments
in present day wear. They can be
from anything to t-shirts, dresses, tunics or even night gowns. T-shaped garments have an opening for the neck and cover the body.they may or may not have sleeves and can come in different lengths. Five types of Garments Otzi the Iceman Here is my friend Jennifer and me dressed up for a night out at New Paltz, but before we stepped out we made sure we were bundled up for the cold weather outside! Our primary motivation for wearing coats, sweaters, and scarves was to protect our bodies from the harsh winter weather New Paltz was receiving that night. We also made sure it stayed true to our original style like the color choices and fabrics (I think white and beige looks nice on me). I guess you can say in every piece of clothing we put on that night we had survival in mind as well as seduction, the fundamental reasons for dress. We made sure we were cozy and warm and looked good as well. PROTECTION So the main reasons most women use purses and handbags today is to carry anything they might deem necessary to take out side the house (which is a lot). When it comes to Utility as a motivation it can mean anything from purses to handbags to even belts with attachments and slings to hold babies in. A utility can be be anything you need to carry something with. As you can see in the picture, the two girls on the right are both carrying big handbags. This can be due to the fact that they might need lots of space to carry needed things like maybe medicine, toiletries or simply a wallet. I guess in that case you can say that survival is a fundamental reason in carrying a handbag. UTILITY Seduction is the idea that a aesthetic pleasing presentation of oneself can help us find a mate. This motivation of dress links us to the fundamental reason of dress where attractiveness was important in order to find a mate to reproduce. Seduction is usually shown in women and emphasizes the beauty of the body as well as showcases fertility. In the picture to the left, we can see that the lingerie embodies seduction as a motivation because of it’s fir on a woman’s curves and it’s aesthetic appeal. SEDUCTION Group identification has to do with an affiliation by a subset of people. It could be anything from a football team to a group of people who wear a uniform at work. In the photo, you can see that everyone is wearing exactly the same thing from socks all the way to our hairstyles. Even the males look in sync. It is part of the culture in high school to look alike on a team to identify who you are and what you stand for. This can connect back to survival because groups as a unit are stronger. GROUP IDENTIFICATION To arouse emotion when one dresses, it is to create a response from those who perceive it. Appearance perception lets us understand messages being sent by what other people wear. For example, the photo depicts a young lady as a homeless person and we can guess that because of her torn and rumpled clothing as well as messy hair. This can arouse the emotion of humor because of the sign she is holding and the fact that as an audience we recognize her counter part is not a kitten. In my opinion, this is connected to seduction one of the fundamental reasons for dress because in present day culture being humorous and brave is considered sexy. AROUSE EMOTION Mrs. Cayne. 1930. Photograph. Ex-Gardner Collection, England. Fashion & Fetishism: Corsets, Tight-Lacing & Other Forms of Body Sculpture. By David Kunzle. Phoenix Mill: Sutton Limited, 2004. 3177. Print. This is one example of body modification called reshaping. Reshaping is a modification that forces the body to change over time. The corset is used to help the wearer decrease the size of his/her waist by forcing tissues to move up into the rib cage or lower into the hips. Although, initially designed for women, this phenomenon has also caught the interest of some men. I believe the initial motivation for Mrs Cayne and her tight-lacing ways came to eliminated her back pains by adding pressure with the corset which of course leads us back to the fundamental reason, survival. However, what motivated her to keep dropping inches from her waist, was to hold the interest of a man who said that the smaller her waist looked, the better. This is seduction, the attempt to look attractive for a mate. Coats & Scarves, Suny New Paltz. Personal photograph by author. 2011. Purses & handbags, New York, NY. Personal photograph by author. 2010. Homeless, New York, NY. Personal photograph by author. 2009. Cheerleaders, Brooklyn, NY. Personal photograph by author. 2006. Joshua get's tattooed, Bronx, NY. Personal photograph by author. 2009. Another form of body modification is tattooing. Tattooing is the embedding of dye into the skin through small incisions. It is a form of body paint and is permanent because of its nature. Tattoos traditionally attracted negative views when it first came about, but throughout the years it has been slowly becoming part of lots of cultures. In the photograph we see a young male getting tattooed by a tattoo artist on his arm. The motivation here might be personal expression to show self esteem and feel good about himself. Also, to communicate with symbols because through the art on his body he can tell a story. Reshaping Tattooing Monique, Jansen. Scarification. 2005. Photograph. World Travel Photography, Ethiopia. Pbase. B-Witched, 9 Sept. 2005. Web. 5 June 2011. . One other form of body modification is scarification. Scarification is a raised pattern on the skin made through incisions. It is usually found when tribes want to identify themselves. However, it is still used in present day culture as personal expression, for magico-religious or devotional purposes, and even as a way to communicate with symbols. I believe this photograph shows a man who is trying to identify with his tribe, a form of group identification. Scarification Body Modification: a permanent alteration of the body. Revlon, “Revlon Super Lustrous Lipstick”, Cosmopolitan, Donna Kalajjan Lagani, New York: September 2009. Silver, Hans. Tribal Decoration. 2009. Photograph. Hans Silver Photography, Africa. Natural Fashion: Tribal Decoration from Africa. London: Thames & Hudson, 2009. 115. Print. Jared's Red Mohawk. 2011. Photograph. Hair Color Ideas. Word Press. N. Design, 8 Mar. 2011. Web. 2 June 2011. . In this first photograph of body paint we see Jessica Alba in makeup. She is wearing eye shadow, concealer, lipstick, bronzer, eyeliner, and a bit of blush. This is considered body paint because it is decoration of the face for aesthetic appeal. Many woman use make up as a form of body paint to manipulate their looks. Some use it to hide things from their body, others use it to amplify parts of their body. Also, some use it to manipulate their age. I believe this photograph was used in a magazine for seduction because it amplifies her beauty and to arouse emotion. To arouse emotion is to create a response and this photograph in the magazine was created to persuade woman to buy products from Revlon. Body paint can also be used a tribal decoration for some cultures. For example, in this photograph we see a young child decorated in different colors and patterns on her face to represent different things about her tribe and herself. The motivations in this picture has a lot to do with group identification and personal expression because of the patterns on her face and beads she is wearing. This photograph represents body paint as a dye. Body paint can be anything to decorate the body with paints or dyes and is not permanent. In the photo we see a young main with a red dye in his hair sporting a red Mohawk as a hairstyle. I believe the motivation here is personal expression because he is trying to express himself through color and bold style. Also, I think another motivation is seduction because if he stands out enough, he might attract a mate. BODY
PAINT Used to decorate the bodyfor different types of motivations. Leopard tattoo, Bronx, NY. Personal photograph by author. 2007. A totem is when a person adorns or modifies the body to imitate an animal or spirit. In this photograph we see a picture of a foot with a leopard print tattooed on to it. With this tattoo, the body has taken on qualities of an animal. This tattoo was done as a personal expression for the love of leopards the tattooed person has. This also serves as a symbol to communicate to those around how deep the connection is between person and animal. TOTEM Usher, David. Being queer is a sexual disorder: Obama’s Pretzel Logic. New York: 2009. Web. 6 December 2009. Color symbolism, a concept of body art has a lot to do with the meanings of colors being presented on the body. For example, there are many cross-cultural meanings of colors like red symbolizes blood and death and black symbolizes darkness and evil. Color symbolism can convey identity or be used in social rituals. In the photograph shown, color symbolism is used to represent the gay community. It is devotion from the wearers to present themselves as homosexuals. COLOR SYMBOLISM All Secrets of Victoria Secret. 2010. Photograph. Very Sexy, New York. Glassesetc. VIctoria's Secret, 14 Dec. 2010. Web. 5 June 2011. . Sam's Sweet Sixteen, New York, NY. Personal photograph by author. 2008. In this image we see Samantha in her sweet sixteen gown. A sweet sixteen is a celebration of a 16th birthday and is a ceremony usually to represent the coming of age. In the image, Samantha is wearing a traditional ball gown and by her side there are two children dressed formally as well to carry her shoes. This photograph represents magico-religious/ devotional motivation because in Spanish culture, a sweet sixteen is considered a religious event. The young lady makes a stop at church before attending her party where her father changes her shoes from flats to high heels. This represents the transition from a young girl to a woman. MAGICO-RELIGIOUS
DEVOTIONAL Anthony's styel, Bronx, NY. Personal photograph by author. 2008. Personal expression, another motivation as to why we adorn our bodies is anything that can decorate the body to show self-esteem or that someone is feeling good about himself or herself. In the image shown, Anthony, is wearing a red button down shirt with a white t-shirt under, a fitted Yankee baseball cap that is tilted up to fit his style and his facial hair is clean cut with a specific pattern on his face. This image embodies personal expression because in the photo Anthony comes across as confident about himself and what he is wearing. His facial hair is cut to his style and his baseball cap is strategically placed on his head for his liking. PERSONAL EXPRESSION Ashlee's iphone background, Bronx, NY. Personal photograph by author. 2010. Communicating with symbols is another reason people adorn their bodies. It is a non-verbal message that communicates ethnicity, beliefs, achievements, loyalties, family, sex, age, status, etc. In the image shown, the rainbow symbol on the apple is meant to represent homosexuality; the apple represents modern day culture where Apple products have become a household name as well as product. This image was found as a background to Ashlee Guzman’s iPhone. It is used to communicate to everyone that she is part of the gay community. With this symbol she identifies her sexual orientation, beliefs, and status. Jackie's look, Middletown, NY. Personal photograph by author. 2009 When the motivation to adorn the body is modesty, the body is covered and careful not to expose private areas. In the photograph show, Jackie is wearing a red sweater that modestly sits on her frame, covering up to her wrist. There is no cleavage shown or much skin and through this display we see an emphasis of her face, not the seduction of her body. I believe this motivation to dress derived from personal expression and religious values because in some cultures showing too much skin is disrespectful. MODESTY Ozwald Boateng. 2001. Photograph. Spring/ Summer Collection. Costume and Fashion: a Concise History. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2002. 285. Print. Status or Hierarchy is another motivation why people adorn their bodies. Decoration to the body can exude power or money. It shows a person’s position in a group or society. Such decorations can represent status. One symbol most known is a crown, this represents royalty. Another symbol is a suit. In society, a suit represents a person who is well educated and has power. The image shown is of a man wearing an orange suit. This may also exude personal expression because of the bold color as opposed to black or blue. STATUS OR HIERARCHY Motivations Otzi the Iceman. 3000 b.c. Photograph. South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, Italy. South Tyrol Museum of Archeology. 2008. Web. 4 June 2011. . Two scientists found Otzi, the iceman in the Otzial Alps in Germany. When they found him, they also found bits of the clothing he wore that had not disintegrated due to the freezing temperatures. Otzi wore a hide coat, a bearskin cap, leggings, a belt and pouch, and a garment that looked like a cape. Otzi wore lots of different garment styles. He used a bifurcated garment, which was the leggings that allowed him movement for his legs. Also he used a coat style garment that was the hide coat that was a tunic with an opening down the front. Furthermore, he had a draped style garment in the form of a cape because it draped around his body. for dressing Tutankhamen and His Queen. 1350-1340 b.c. Photograph. XVIII Dynasty, Egypt. Costume and Fashion: a Concise History. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2002. 16. Print. Handaxe in Quartzite. 350,000 yrs. Photograph. Stone Tools, Spain. Wikipedia. Mar. 2007. Web. 4 June 2011. . The image to the left represents an image from the Stone Age in which it shows humans did exist. It is artwork from Egypt that depicts King Tutankhamen and his queen. It shows them both in tunics and embroidered belts. The image o the right is a tool from the Stone Age dated back 350, 000 years ago. It was used to build things as well as carve things needed by prehistoric humans. COMMUNICATE WITH
SYMBOLS THE END :)