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CHAPTER 5: SOCIAL STUDIES
Transcript of CHAPTER 5: SOCIAL STUDIES
ANIS AFIQAH SUKRI CHAPTER 5:
ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY GEOGRAPHY ECOLOGY focuses on the spatial interaction of human beings with each other and with their physical environment THE MALTHUSIAN THEORY: -THE ISSUES OF POPULATION GROWTH- concerned with the interactions between living things and their environment eg: why cities are located there?
how environment shapes the society culture?
why some areas developed and others don't? DEMOGRAPHY the study of the number and characteristics of a population eg: not only with the number of people, but also with the factors that may be causing their numbers to increase or decrease Two keys determinants of the population growth Death rate Birth rate The growth of population over time Population grown rapidly since 1800s Unequal population growth since late 1800s Population growth in the future The problem of counting: census:
an official systematic count of the number of people who live in a given area by Thomas Robert Malthus
belief that a population tends to outrun the means of subsistence based on the 'law of diminishing returns'
if more and more people are employed on a given area of land, eventhough total output continue to expand, beyond a certain point average ouput per work will shrink THE CONTEXT OF OPTIMAL POPULATION: the population that would maximize the welfare of its members THE POPULATION'S QUALITY: 2 forms of deterioration:
decline of physical quality and stamina
decline of native intelligence eg: food chains -THE INTERACTION BETWEEN CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT- ENVIRONMENT: social environment: natural environment: the sum of all the external influences that impinge on the human organism human-depends on culture non-human-depends on climate, soil, plant, etc Human ecology: the way in which human societies adjust to their environment -ECOLOGICAL BALANCE- the state achieved when each plant/animal species with its own characteristics and needs, has adjusted to its environment and survived,
and when other species, which have likewise adjusted to the environment, prevent it from expanding indefinitely and from crowding them out Threats to ecological balance: global warming
acid rain, etc POLLUTION the destruction of our natural resource base by the productive process
choose: want material things or want pristine environment?
no pollution is impossible! solution? optimum level of pollution CONSERVATION AND THE HIGH PRICE OF GASOLINE the way market coordinates the available supply with demand?
=higher the price of the supply