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Southern Clubshell

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by

Branson Wetzstein

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of Southern Clubshell

Southern Clubshell
By: Branson Wetzstein

Location
Once found in every major river in Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia
Now, found mainly in Alabama and scarcely in Mississippi and Georgia
How Many are Left?
Decreasing, however, at a slower rate.
Was once declining at 70-80%, now at 60%
Current Location

Habitat
Abiotic
Flowing water, streams, rivers
Highly oxygenated
Freshwater
Biotic
Blacktail Shiners - Young Clubshells need this fish to grow, find food, and for protection
Normal river/stream organisms
Food
Filter feeds
eats algae, small plants, small animals, and possibly bacteria
Predators
Fishes, turtles, muskrats, raccons, and otters
Physical Adaptations
Bivalve
Two sheels - Used for protection from predators and environment
Siphon
True Siphon
Helps collect food
Removes Waste
Food Web
Behavioral Adaptions
Blacktail Shiner
Uses the Blacktail Shiner and other similar fish while developing to avoid predators and assist in filter feeding
Burrows in sand and gravel
Hiding in sand and gravel protect and camouflage the Clubshell from predators
Niche
Help determine water quality
Sensitive to pollution
Filter Feeds
Keeps water clean
Food Source
Relatively reliable food source for other animals (before population decline)
Reasons for Decline
Pollution
Sensitive to pollution and toxin in the water
Mining
Dumping excess sand and gravel into streams crush and deplete oxygenation in streams, therefore, killing Clubshells
Conservation
Bringing carrier fish to streams and rivers to help Clubshell development
Safe Harbor Agreement in Lee County, Alabama
Stop pollution, dumping
Raise awareness
Interesting Facts
Attaches to several breeds of fish's gills to ensure safety
Green spotted shells in childhood, deep yellow in adulthood
Used to be incredibly common all over MS, AL, and GA. Now, only 6 viable locations exist
Works Cited
Naturalhistory.com
ecos.fws.gov
iucnredlist.org
marietta.edu
Full transcript