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THE SAHARA DESERT

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by

abeer shehzad

on 17 June 2015

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Transcript of THE SAHARA DESERT

THE SAHARA DESERT
BY: Abeer and Minu
Basic Information
Coordinates : West Point: 24.215527 N , -12.885834 W
North Point: 33.515396 N, 11.066271 E
East Point: 30.696436 N, 34.443121 E
South Point: 16.051339 N, 9.442681 E
Countries it Covers: Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Western Sahara, Sudan and Tunisia
World's largest hot desert
Third largest desert overall after Antarctica and Arctic
9.4 million square kilometers
Population: probably less than 2 million
Located in the southern hemisphere
Biotic Elements
Around 500 species live in the sahara desert ranging from reptiles to mammals
Approximately 10,500 years ago, monsoonal rains struck the Sahara, making it a habitable area
Rains soon started to withdraw 5,000 years later, eventually wiping out several different species
86% of animals in the Sahara are either extinct or endangered.
Other existing fauna (animals) of the Sahara include the gerbil, jerboa, Cape hare, desert hedgehog, the slender mongoose, barbary sheep, sand fox, spotted hyena and much more
It is home to more than 300 species of migratory birds
Is also home to frogs, toads, and tadpoles that live in the lakes and rivers
These lakes and rivers also include algae, brine shrimp, and other crustaceans
Lizards, chameleons, skinks, and cobras can all be found amongst the rocks and sand dunes.
The Sahara contain concentrations of grasses, shrubs, and trees
A few plants in the Sahara include the cypress, olive, mastic trees and thyme trees
Abiotic Elements
Food Pyramid
food chain begins with the flora
extreme heat and less rainfall still flora and fauna live there
flora are producers, photosynthesis and thus prepare food
many kinds of flora in the desert
date palms, Cacti, thorn acacia, creosote bush, sage brush, desert milkweed, desert willow, desert tobacco and many annuals
Sahara desert food chain the next level are the herbivores
flora are eaten by primary consumers called herbivores
small mammals like kangaroo rat , ground squirrels, certain insects, mounflou, Dorcus gazelle, and Arabian camels
Sahara desert food chain also includes large predators like striped hyena, sand cat, fox , hawks and eagles, carnivores
Some animals eat both plants and animals, omnivores
Some scavengers, feed on dead animals
decomposers, desert mushrooms, bacteria, worms
decompose, dead animals, excreta, return minerals to soil so plants grow.
The Sahara Desert biome was classified as a climatic desert about 5 million years ago.
Over time, the surface reflectivity of the Sahara has increased, and the evapotranspiration has reduced therefore making that ecozone more humid and dry.
The northern half of the Sahara is filled with cool winters and hot summers with an annual daily average tempertature is about 20 degrees celsius
The southern half is filled with a dry mild winter, a hot and humid springtime, and a rainy season in the summer with an annual daily average temperature of 17.5 degrees celsius
The rivers in the Sahara are the Nile River and the Niger River
Has a numerous amount of underwater reservoirs
More than 20 lakes in the Sahara
The only lake, Lake Chad, has drinkable water.
Precipitation averages about 5 inches per year
Some areas may even receive less than 1 inch of rain annually
The soils of the Sahara contain minimal organic matter
The soils are frequently saline
Because the soil of the desert is loose, instead of compact, when rain falls into the soil, it is seeped in very quickly. This may however cause the rain to wash away useful nutrients.
Habitats
Sahara, vast area undisturbed habitat, sand and rock
small areas of permanent vegetation
most degradation is found where water (oases, etc) is
habitats may be heavily altered by human activities
existing tree cover has often been removed for fuel, fodder by nomads, traders


Threats
pressures are found in areas of permanent water (oases)
in areas where water comes close to the surface
local pressure on natural resources can be intense
intense pressure on any remaining populations of large mammals adapted to desert conditions
populations species have been greatly reduced by hunting for food
also through hunting for sport and recreation.
The addax now critically threatened with extinction, intense over-hunting
most of other desert-adapted antelopes that may still occur in the ecosystem are endangered
Food Web
Producers
: Cacti, Thorn Acacias, Creoste bushes, Sage bushes, octillo
Consumers
: Fennec, rosy boa, common kingsnake
Decomposers
: worms, ants
Omnivores
: Roadrunner, Armadillo, Meerkat
Carnivores
: Snakes, Lizards, Scorpion and tarantula
Herbivores
: Insects, Rodents, Kangaroos, Rats
Why There are sand dunes

sand piles up, researchers found, several dunes on top of another
formed in response to some past climate change
Kelso Dunes depend upon times when sand supply is enhanced
happens whenever climate is dry enough, expose raw material
most eastern part Kelso Dunes formed, water-filled Soda Lake and Silver Lake dried, exposing the lake bottom sediment
entire dune system stacked in five major pulses over past 25,000 years
Human Activities
drilling for oil
military testing
military training
taking land
pollution
Organizations
stop polluting
less transportation
SCF: Sahara Conservation Fund
SCF is saving animals
SWRC: Saharan Wildlife Recovery Centre
helps save endangered animals
some organizations helping the people
giving them food, water, etc.
Interesting facts
The Sahara used to be rich, fertile farmland
The Sahara? Brrrrr . . .
Parts of the Sahara are rich and fertile, even today
Over a thousand species of plants grow here
It’s not even half sand
The shifts in climate in the Sahara Desert are due to a 41000 year cycle
There are sand dunes in the Sahara as tall as 590 feet
The climate of the Sahara is one of the harshest ones in the world
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