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Writers of the Revolution
Transcript of Writers of the Revolution
1616 -- Shakespeare dies
1620 -- Mayflower pilgrims establish Massachusetts Bay Colony
1635 -- North America's 1st public school founded (Boston)
1650 -- Anne Bradstreet's poems are published in London
1692 -- Salem witchcraft trials create an atmosphere of mass hysteria
Writers of the
1704 -- 1st American newspaper published (The Boston Newsletter)
1720 -- colonial population reaches approximately a half million
1722 -- Ben Franklin's 1st publication humorously criticizes Puritanism
1773 -- Boston Tea Party (Colonists violently reject Britain's taxation policies
March 23, 1775:
Patrick Henry delivers his famous speech
April 19, 1775:
Revolutionary War begins
Thomas Paine's widely read pamphlet (Common Sense) passionately argues the case for independence
Thomas Jefferson writes (and the 2nd Continental Congress adopts) the Declaration of Independence.
Thomas Paine's "The Crisis" essay is read aloud to Washington's troops as they come out of retreat, just before crossing the Delaware.
U.S. Constitution signed
Puritan values and Enlightenment ideals contributed to the country's thirst for independence.
burst of intellectual energy in Europe
influenced colonial thinkers
questioned previously held truths about who should hold power in government
favored a government by the people
"By the people," meaning the people agree to abide by government laws, and the government agrees to protect the people's rights and freedoms.
Writers of the Revolution:
expressed Enlightenment ideals
concentrated on political writing
used pamphlets to spread ideas
inexpensive little books
reached thousands of people
stirred political debate
verbalized colonists' growing discontent with Britain's rule
fueled the revolution
focused on natural law and human rights
played a key role in the creation of a new nation
Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
known as "the Orator of Liberty"
one of the earliest opponents of British rule
governor of Virginia (served several terms)
always skeptical of federal government
turned down Washington's offers to become Secretary of State and/or Supreme Court Justice
had 16 kids! (6 by 1st wife who died; 10 by 2nd wife)
Speech in the Virginia Convention is credited with narrowly convincing the delegates to vote in favor of and prepare for war with Great Britain.
"If this be treason, make the most of it."
"Give me liberty, or give me death!"
one of the most active and accomplished founding fathers
1st Secretary of State, 2nd Vice President, 3rd President
developed the policy of separation of church and state
violinist and amateur inventor/architect
"All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of men."
"We hold these truths to be self-evident . . ."
Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
originally from London
came to America when he was 37 years old
known for being brash, bold, and fearless
eagerly took on the task of openly/publicly advocating independence
writing style addressed the common man (farmers, craftsmen, laborers--not the educated elite)
reinforced a democratic message: that all men were capable of understanding and participating in government
The common people responded because he spoke their language.
the radical the country needed, the spokesman for new American values and ideals
"These are the times that try men's souls."
Basics of an Argument
clear statement of position on an issue
reasons for and evidence to prove argument
statements that anticipate opposing views
statements that refute opposing views
sums up reasons or calls for action
Effective arguments also make good use of language.
Writers often use rhetorical devices and persuasive techniques to make their arguments more powerful.
appeals to the writer's/speaker's credibility or reputation
The writer/speaker gains the audience's trust by being respectful, complimentary, gracious, and humble.
appeals to the audience's emotions
The writer/speaker tries to make the audience FEEL something about what's being said.
The writer/speaker plays on the audience's human emotions, their abilities to feel sympathy, sadness, happiness, empathy, fear, worry, hope, etc.
appeals to the audience's ability to reason
The writer/speaker relies on data, statistics, or factual information so that the message "makes sense."
a question asked to emphasize a point;
not meant to be answered
contrasting ideas expressed in a grammatically balanced statement
words or phrases repeated for emphasis
a form of repetition in which a grammatical pattern is repeated
All forms of figurative language are also rhetorical devices.