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TOK Reason Presentation
Transcript of TOK Reason Presentation
Sherlock Holmes A method of comprehending our external world
by using justification to provide the basis to build our answers. Reas n Inductive Reasoning
Creates probable conclusions based on sound premises Deductive Reasoning
Produces unquestionable conclusions Specific observations or premises to a generalized conclusion Generalized premises to a definite conclusion, with no middle ground J.J. Thomson Used deduction to argue that cathode rays were made up of electrons Plum Pudding model If all matter containing the negative particles can be deflected in an electric field, and if the cathode rays are made of the negative particles, then the cathode rays would be deflected in the electric field. Deductive Example
If all dogs like bones
Fido is a dog
Then Fido must like bones Inductive Example
Fido is a dog
I have never seen Fido breathe fire and I know that no one else has seen Fido breathe fire
Therefore, dogs do not breathe fire. Which is more reliable in coming to conclusions given a set of valid and sound premises, deduction or induction? Knowledge Issue Validity Definition
The condition where the premises force the conclusion with the conclusion impossible to falsify should the premises be true Charles Darwin Darwin's Mockingbirds Scientific Process Cycle What constitutes an effective and persuasive argument? Knowledge Issue When should we disregard invalid or unsound arguments? How does a sound and valid argument lead to the acquisition of justified true beliefs? Knowledge Issue Knowledge Issue Arctic sovereignty claims Informal logic
A truly effective argument is convincing, independent of whether or not the argument is actually formally valid Formal logic
An effective argument must reach a logically sound conclusion Arguments Conclusion
The most effective and persuasive argument is one that is subjectively convincing while adhering to the rules of logic without logical fallacies. An effective and persuasive argument