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Fluency: the ability to read a text accurately, quickly, and

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by

April Sanders

on 24 September 2014

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Transcript of Fluency: the ability to read a text accurately, quickly, and

Helping students see phrases instead of only individual words as well as drawing attention to specific words for inflection.
Strategies for Fluency
Using a text multiple times to increase reading speed and understanding.

Repeated Readings
Focusing Instruction on Proper and Meaningful Phrasing
Modeling Reading Fluency
Providing Readers with Materials at their Independent Reading Level
The next step toward independent reading for students.
One can use reading buddies, echo reading, and choral reading.
Providing Oral Support While Reading
Reading to them and drawing their attention to the expressive portion of the teacher's reading
1. Modeling reading fluency

2. Providing oral reading support to students while they themselves read

3. Repeated Readings

4. Focusing instruction on proper and meaningful phrasing

5. Providing readers with materials at their independent reading level

What is automaticity?
Focusing Instruction on Proper and Meaningful Phrasing
Video Demonstration
Fluency:
the ability to read a text accurately, quickly, and with expression.


Reading Rockets Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/teaching/reading101/fluency

How does automaticity relate to fluency?
Modeling Reading Fluency
Strategy
Modeling Reading Fluency
Strategy
Modeling Reading Fluency
Strategy
Modeling Reading Fluency
Strategy
Providing Oral Support While Reading Video Demonstration
Providing Oral Support While Reading Strategy
Providing Oral Support While Reading
Strategy
Providing Oral Support While Reading
Strategy
Providing Oral Support While Reading
Strategy
Providing Oral Support While Reading
Strategy
Repeated Readings
Video Demonstration
Repeated Readings Strategy
Repeated Readings Strategy
Repeated Readings Strategy
Repeated Readings Strategy
Repeated Readings Strategy
Focusing Instruction on Proper and Meaningful Phrasing Strategy
Focusing Instruction on Proper and Meaningful Phrasing Strategy
Sight Reading
Focusing Instruction on Proper and Meaningful Phrasing Strategy
How are fluency & vocabulary related to decoding?
How does sight reading help fluency?
Providing Readers with Materials at Individual Reading Levels Resource
Providing Readers with Materials at Individual Reading Levels Resource
Providing Readers with Materials at Individual Reading Levels Resource
Providing Readers with Materials at Individual Reading Levels Resource
Adams Model of Skilled Reading

The skill of reading is a network of four processors
Which of the four processes connects most closely with phonics?
How Reading Skills Develop...
Appel, K., & Griffin, S. Strategies for Reading Comprehension. Retrieved from http://www.readingresource.net/strategiesforreadingcomprehension.html
Independent and Buddy Reading Poster Template

Make a poster of what independent and buddy reading should look like. Discuss the behaviors of each person.
Think-alouds

While reading to the students, teachers include describing the reading and explaining it in further detail
Think-alouds. (2014). Reading Rockets. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/think_alouds
Assessing Fluency - What is the best way?

Readers' theatre

Allow students to rehearse and perform a play for peers or portions of a book that is full of dialogue. This allows practice on proper inflection.
Reading Rockets. (2014). Fluency: Instructional Guidelines and Student Activities. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/3416
Read Alouds - Poems for multiple voices

Reinforces elements of performance and getting the message across to its audience.
Lowe, K. (2002). Read Alouds - Poems for Multiple Voices. Retrieved from http://www.myread.org/guide_multiple.htm
Free Reading (2008). Reading Connected Text Activities. Retrieved from http://www.freereading.net/index.php?title=Reading_Connected_Text_Activities
Reading Connected Text Activities

Progress through activities of deepening level of difficulty.
A student must have good decoding skills to read fluently. The more reading a student does, the more words s/he will encounter and her/his vocabulary will grow.

Have a larger vocabulary will assist the student when decoding unknown words because the reader has more connections to known words.
Recorded Reading: Fluency Learning Center

Students record themselves reading a new text, score themselves, and repeat the process to see improvement.
Recorded Reading: Fluency Learning Center. (2014). Scholastic Inc. Retrieved from http://printables.scholastic.com/printables/detail/?id=47101&query=fluency&N=0&Ntk=printables_minibooks&Ntt=fluency&_fq=fff&spellcheck=false&fq=Grade%3A%28%5EGrade+3%5E+OR+%5EGrade+4%5E+OR+%5EGrade+5%5E+OR+%5EGrade+6%5E+OR+%5EGrade+7%5E+OR+%5EGrade+8%5E%29&fq=Printable_Type%3A%28%5EPractice+Pages%5E+OR+%5ELesson+Plans%5E+OR+%5ELearning+Activities+and+Games%5E+OR+%5EGraphic+Organizers%5E+OR+%5ETeacher+Tools%5E+OR+%5EAssessment+Tools%5E+OR+%5EClip+Art%5E%29&No=0
Echo Reading Poems, First-person stories, and Plays

A website giving recommendations for texts that are helpful in echo reading.
Read Strong. Echo Reading. Retrieved from http://myweb.stedwards.edu/mikekb/ReadStrong/echoreading.html
Using Echo Reading with Struggling Readers

Ideas for modifications for students who are struggling with Echo Reading.
Dill, M. & Stannard Gromisch, E. (2012). Using Echo Reading with Struggling Readers. Bright Hub Inc. Retrieved from http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-inclusion-strategies/34413-try-echo-reading-strategies/
Record It

Use a tape recorder or an app like Audioboo or StoryKit to have students record themselves to make an Audio Book. Have them listen and re-record if they can improve.
Fluent Kids. (2014). Reading Rockets. Retrieved from http://www.startwithabook.org/fluent-kids
Books on Tape

Finding books that have an audio recording so the students can follow along in their book
Mather, N. & Goldstein, S. (2001). Reading Fluency. LD Online. Retrieved from http://www.ldonline.org/article/6354/
Book Wizard. (2014). Scholastic Inc. Retrieved from http://www.scholastic.com/bookwizard/
Book Wizard

A search engine to find books through Grade Level Equivalent, Guided Reading, Developmental Reading Assessment, or Lexile Measurement.
Fountas, I. & Pinnell, G. (2014) Fountas & Pinnell Leveled Books Website. Retrieved from http://www.fountasandpinnellleveledbooks.com/
Fountas & Pinnell

On-line list of books from over 300 publishers that is dedicated to providing different levels of reading books.
The Lexile Framework

Finding books based on the range of a student's Lexile range.
MetaMetrics. (2014). The Lexile Framework for Reading. Retrieved from https://www.lexile.com/
READ-O

Designed like a Bingo card, the students can choose activities at home that incorporate reading.
Appel, K., & Griffin, S. Strategies for Reading Comprehension. Retrieved from http://www.readingresource.net/strategiesforreadingcomprehension.html
A Poem to Read, A Song to Sing

Each Monday introduce a new poem and song and have the students join in choral reading each day. The topics of the poems/songs can facilitate transitions into new lesson plans.
Choral Reading. Read Strong. Retrieved from http://myweb.stedwards.edu/mikekb/ReadStrong/choralreading.html
Choral Reading

Guiding the students in unison reading for pacing and enunciation.
American Masters - PBS. (2014). The Importance of Using Multiple Methods of Reading Instruction. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/education/general.html
Adapted Paired Reading

Read aloud from the book with the student. Tap the student's hand and they pick up reading out loud where you stopped. Switch back and forth.
If they struggle or skip a word, point to the word and say it and have them repeat it after you.
Wright, Jim. (2002). Kids as Reading Helpers: A Peer Tutor Training Manual. Retrieved from http://www.interventioncentral.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/pdfs_interventions/prtutor_lesson3.pdf
Rasinski, T. Guided Fluency Instruction: Moving Students to Independence. http://teacher.scholastic.com/products/fluencyformula/pdfs/Guided_Fluency_Instruction.pdf
Cloze Procedure

A reading technique in which words are deleted from a passage and as the students read the text, they need to insert words that are appropriate to the sentences.
Saskatoon Public Schools. (2009). Cloze Procedure. Instructional Strategies Online. Retrieved from http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/De/PD/instr/strats/cloze/index.html
Thinking Bubble Template

Make a large thought bubble for the student to become the 'thinker' as the other students read the text out loud. The thinker is encouraged to 'yell out' what they are thinking as the others read along.
Fluency Intervention Strategy

Work with students individually 3-5 times a week for 10-15 minutes. Over the days, the student should be achieving more words per minute. There are sample charts to record the student's progress.
www.bemidji.k12.mn.us (2014). Fluency Intervention Strategy - Repeated Reading. http://www.bemidji.k12.mn.us/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Fluency-Repeated-Reading-Intervention.pdf
Sight Words - recognized automatically

Decoding slows sight reading

Dolch & Fry have a list of 300 sight or high-frequency words a student needs to know.
FLUENCY. (2003). Effective Instruction for Struggling Readers: Research-Based Practices. Retrieved from http://resources.buildingrti.utexas.org/PDF/chunking.pdf
Fluency Lesson with Chunking

Group the students by reading level and have them put slash marks into their differentiated text to show where they need to pause and explain why. Have them practice reading to each other, using the proper pauses.
Appel, K., & Griffin, S. Strategies for Reading Comprehension. Retrieved from http://www.readingresource.net/strategiesforreadingcomprehension.html
Assessing each student's level of ability and encouraging them to read outside of school at their skill level.
The Four Processors
Fluency is the ability to read quickly with few mistakes.

Would a written test be the best way to assess for fluency?
Achieving automaticity in reading is essential not only to their becoming effective readers, but becoming effective all-around learners. The majority of students make the shift from “learning to read” to “reading to learn” around second or third grade. At this stage, their reading skills have developed to a point of automaticity
where they no longer need to use their working memory to facilitate the task of reading
, and they can use that memory for things like interpretation, comprehension and creative thinking.

As others begin to learn more and more from their reading, the struggling reader must engage their working memory in the challenge of getting through the letters and words of each sentence as opposed to using that valuable memory to glean meanings and assimilate information.
According to Linnea Ehri's Phases of Word Recognition, a reader in the automatic phase is proficient in word reading. The reader has multiple strategies for decoding, a good sight vocabulary, and reads fluently. This allows the reader to focus on meaning.
Phonological Processor:
Contribute information from speech sounds
Orthographic Processor
: Accesses visual information from print
Content Processor:
Constructs ongoing meaning and coherent interpretation of text
Semantic Processor
: Considers possible meanings and selects the correct one
Ability to separate sounds in a given word
Ability to rhyme or manipulate sounds
Ability to blend together separate sounds to form a word
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