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Russian and Mughal Empire
Transcript of Russian and Mughal Empire
-Exempt from taxes
-South: Trade Routes
*The Witte System- implemented policies/ stimulated economic development *The Industrial Policy- massive program of railway development linking Russian Empire/stimulated industrial development Russia's Economic Mughal's Economic -Social class- based on economic status: czars, nobles, serfs/ no middle class
-Women were able to be czars if they took on prominent roles
-Recruited lower class to military
*Key to social reform= SERFS Russia's Social Mughal's Social Russia's Cultural Mughal's Cultural Courtney, Jennifer, Julie ,Tiffany Russian and Mughal Empire -Ruled by ministries
-Akbar(1556-1605): established bureaucracy, reduced tensions between Hindu and Muslim communities in India, and encouraged the elaboration of a syncretic religion called the “divine faith”.
-Aurangzeb: conquered all of India and promoted Islam
-Purchased guns and artillery
-Fall of Empire: decentralized -Productive agriculture
-Traded with Europe for artillery guns
-Peasants exchanged tax payment for land
-West: Indian Ocean Trade Thesis:
Throughout the Pre-Modern Era (1450-1750), the Russian and Mughal Empire shared common characteristics in a centralized government, were multicultural,and had a well-defined social class; however, Russia had a stronger military force than the Mughal because of the differentiation of economical decisions on the sourcing of guns in the empires. Both:
-Interacted and gained influence from the west, providing opportunities for the empires and allowed expansion -Ruled by czar
-Peter the Great: changed customs and culture, and impacted cultural aspects.
-Catherine the Great: developed ideas of Enlightment and increased government efficiency
-Created own military weapons
-Fall of Empire: More Centralized Both:
-Trade with western societies of Europe
-Productive agriculture -Social class- based on religion: Emperor, Administrators, Muslim rulers, Hindu nobles, Merchants, Poor farmers
-Women played important roles in managing the Islamic empires
-Allowed market days for women who practiced purdah. Both:
-Social stability/ well-defined social class
-Women: played prominent roles Both:
-Multilingual, Multiracial, Multicultural
-Involuntary Association -Majority of people were Eastern Orthodox
-European cultural influence
-Peter the Great: St. Petersburgh -Majority of people were Hindus
-No official language
-No European cultural influence
*Divine faith and divine ruler
-Shah Jahan: Taj Mahal -Ruled by ministries
-Akbar(1556-1605): established bureaucracy, reduced tension between Muslims and Hindus, and encouraged the "divine faith"
-Aurangzeb: conquered India, promoted Islam
-Purchased guns and artillery
-Fall of Empire: decentralized Direct Comparison for Political: Even though the Russian and Mughal Empire both utilized military guns and weapons, they both had differentiated in the way they accessed them. Russia created their own military weapons and manufactured their guns, while the Mughal empire purchased their guns and artillery from the Europeans. For this reason, the Russian empire had a powerful and stable military force, which also allowed them to have an independent government. On the other hand, the Mughal empire became very dependent on the Europeans after purchasing weapons from them. Although the help from the Europeans confirmed a closer relationship with the Mughal’s, it greatly weakened their military force because of their dependence. Overall, Russia’s stability and independence of their military force helped their empire to last longer than the Mughal Empire during the Pre-Modern Era. Direct Comparison for Economic: For trade, the Mughal Empire concentrated more on expanding their empire rather than trading with foreign countries. However the Russian Empire relied on trade for their survival and success of their empire. Fur became an important commodity for the Russians and agricultural products were an important commodity for the Mughal. Mughal’s traded tax payments for land while the Russian Empire exempted from taxes.The Mughal’s treasury derived large income from foreign trade as they allowed and taxed countries to build trade stations and merchant colonies in their empire. Both empires saw trade from different viewpoints however were able to create a successful economy. Direct Comparison for Social: The difference between the Russian and Mughal social classes is the foundation of the structures. The social class of Russia was based on economic status, such as the differences in payment amounts to the serfs and the nobles on plantations. The serfs received little to no payment among the plantation while serfs received most of the payments. The Mughal empire’s social class was based more on religion, which in seen in promotion of Muslim rulers and Hindu nobles over other classes such as merchants, promoted the most by Aurangzeb. in contrast to the Mughal empire, the Russian empire had no middle class, which led to turmoil along the distinct classes. Both empires offered prominent roles for women in religious and political aspects, taking less power from patriarchy. Ultimately the Russian’s economical social class and the Mughal’s religious social class differed but were similar in the views of women roles. The Russian and Mughal Empire both attempted to use involuntary association in their own way to convert the society to an official religion but had little success in spreading their religion to the conquered lands and people. After the Russians conquered Siberia, they planned on using the newly conquered lands in actuating the indigenous people to convert to Christian Orthodox. They were to convert a few Siberians, but the innate people of Siberia remained resolute in their traditional beliefs leaving the Russians in defeat. Similarly in the Mughal Empire, Akbar encouraged the elaboration of the Divine Faith in hope of reducing tensions between Hindu and Muslim communities. Few converted, but many revolted as religious conflicts worsened. Aurangzeb, the ruler of this time, demolished Akbar’s policy of religious toleration and brought back the jizya and imposed a tax on Hindus to encourage conversion. However it provoked deep hostility among Hindu leaders, which lead to more rebellions.
Direct Comparison for Cultural: