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Transcript of Stephen Krashen
Krashen presented his Theory of Second language Acquisition back
in the 1980's
''humans acquire language in only one way - by understanding messages or by receiving "comprehensible input"' Krashen.
Second Language Acquisition Theory
He is an expert in the field of linguistics, specializing in theories of language acquisition and development. Much of his recent research has involved the study of non-English and bilingual language acquisition. During the past 20 years, he has published well over 100 books and articles.
Krashen's theory consists
of five main hypotheses:
The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis,
The Monitor hypothesis,
The Natural Order hypothesis,
The Input hypothesis,
The Affective Filter hypothesis
1. The Input Hypothesis relates
acquisition, not learning.
2. We acquire by understanding language that contains structures a bit beyond our current level
of competence (i+1).
This is done with the help of the context or extra-linguistic information
3. When communication is successful, when the input is understood and there is enough of it, i+1 will be provided automatically.
4. Production ability emerges.
It is not taught directly
Krashen's theory is widely known and well accepted and has had a large impact in all areas of second language research and teaching since the 1980s.
(University of Southern California)
Real language acquisition
develops slowly, and speaking skills emerge significantly later than listening skills,
The best methods are
those that supply 'comprehensible input' in low anxiety situations
, containing messages that
students really want to hear
If students are consistently
comprehending what they are hearing,
seeing, and/or doing in
the second language they will
be able to construct their own i+1.
Krashen's big idea
Learning a language
is an unconsious
Just as any
i + 1
i= Initial Learning
1= Next level.
Language students should be given a initial "silent period" where they are building up acquired competence in a language before they begin to produce it.
Motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety all affect language acquisition
Never make our students feel awkward or self-conscious by putting them on the spot.
Class time is filled with comprehensible oral input
Teachers must modify their speech so that it is
Demands for speaking (output) are low; students are
not forced to speak until ready
Grammar instruction is only included for students
high school age and older
The focus is on the meaning and not the form.
Krashen, S.D. (1981). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning.
Schutz, R. (2007). "Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition." English Made in Brazil. Retrieved from: http://www.sk.com.br/sk-krash.html
Person SIOP Model. (2012, Marzo 20). Component 3: Comprehensible Input. Retrieved
Dec. 07, 2013
grows on trees
I like pie