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How Did America Impact the Global Wars of the Late 1800s- Early 1900s?

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Kaya Hauser

on 17 March 2014

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Transcript of How Did America Impact the Global Wars of the Late 1800s- Early 1900s?

War #1- Cuban War
The Cuban War of Independence was fought between Cuba and Spain primarily, but the United States was recognized as a belligerent. This war took place from 1895-1898. It resulted in Cuban-American victory and Cuba's independence. Cuba had depended on America economically for years, even though it was still a territory of Spain's. The fight for Cuba's independence only worsened the relationship between Spain and America.
In the late 1800's to the early 1900's, America was in a major war era. There were many wars going on nationally and globally. Without the men that fought for the United States of America, we wouldn't be where we are today. We wouldn't have survived to be the nation we are now, if it were not for the soldiers who stood their ground during war back then.
Wars At This Time
Cuban War of Independence
Philippine Revolution
Spanish-American War
Philippine-American War
Venezuela Crisis
Banana Wars
World War I
America's Role During and After the War
America was trying to make sure a communist country didn't rise from Cuban independence. They provided criticism to Cuba and thought that it would be taken serious because of the Cuban dependence on America. Cuba, however, proved that they weren't completely dependent on America when they formed a communist country despite Nixon's and other's criticisms.
War #2- Philippine Revolution
The Philippine Revolution was fought between the Philippines and Spain upon the discovery of the anti-colonial secret organization Katipunan by the Spanish authorities. This was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892, whose primary aim was to gain independence from Spain through revolution.
How did America Impact the Global Wars of the Late 1800s- Early 1900s?

When Jose Marti presented the Proclamation of Montecristi, the policy was outlined as:
The war was to be waged by blacks and whites alike;
Participation of all blacks was crucial for victory;
Spaniards who did not object to the war effort should be spared,
Private rural properties should not be damaged; and
The revolution should bring new economic life to Cuba.
Cuban Policy
Again, the United States is recognized as a belligerent. This war took place from 1896-1898. It resulted in Filipino victory and the establishment of the first Philippine Republic. The Filipinos, like the Cuban's, wanted independence from Spain and once again, they relied on America to help gain it. In December of 1897 a truce called the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, was signed with the Spanish.
Philippine Revolution Continued
The pact of Biak Na Bato of 1897 formed a truce among the Spanish regime and the Philippine revolutionary regime led by Emilio Aguinaldo, to stop the Philippine Rebellion. It said that
1. Aguinaldo and his companions would go into voluntary exile abroad.
2. That General Primo de Rivera would pay the sum of 800,000 pesos to the rebels in three installments:
400,000 pesos to Aguinaldo upon his departure from Biak-na-Bató.
200,000 pesos when the arms surrendered by the revolutionists amounted to 800 stand.
The remaining 200,00 when the arms surrendered amounted to 1,000 stand.
3. That Primo de Rivera would pay the additional sum of 900,000 pesos to the families of the non-combatant Filipinos who suffered during the armed conflict.
The Pact of Biak-na-Bato
War #3- Spanish-American War
The Spanish-American war was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States. It was the result of American intervention in the Cuban War of Independence and increased agitation between the two countries. In the late 1890s, American public opinion was swayed by anti-Spanish yellow journalism to criticize the Spanish administration of Cuba.
After the sinking of the American battleship USS Maine in Havana harbor, political pressures pushed the administration of President William McKinley into a war he had wanted to avoid. Compromise was sought by Spain, but rejected by the United States which sent an ultimatum to Spain demanding it surrender control of Cuba.
Why America Engaged In War
Americas War Status
The result of this war was the 1898 Treaty of Paris,. It was negotiated on terms favorable to America. It allowed temporary American control of Cuba, and it allowed us to have authority over Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippine islands instead of Spain. The United States gained several island possessions spanning the globe, but Cuba was not happy about losing its freedoto be ruled by America.
Result of the Spanish-American War
What Happened with America and Cuba?
Following the Cuban Revolution of 1959, relations started to deteriorated substantially and have been marked by tension ever since. The United States has maintained an embargo which makes it illegal for U.S. corporations to do business with Cuba. Since they are technically still a United States territory, U.S. diplomatic representation in Cuba is handled by the United States Interests Section in Havana and there is a similar Cuban Interests Section in Washington D.C.
America and Cuba continued
The United States imposed the embargo which is an official ban on trade or other commercial activity with this particular country. America also stated it will continue this ban as long as the Cuban government continues to refuse to move toward democratization and provide greater respect for human rights. They hope for capitalism based government and until then, Cuba and the United States maintain a very rocky "relationship".

War #4- Philippine-American War
The Philippine–American War started in 1899. It was an armed conflict between the United States and Filipino revolutionaries. The Filipinos, like Cubans, were not happy about being American ruled. It was just another part to their fight for Independence as a nation. Fighting arrose between the United States and the Philippines on February 4, 1899. On June 2, 1899, the First Philippine Republic officially declared war against America.

Under the 1902 Philippine Organic Act passed by the United States Congress, Filipinos were initially given very limited self-government, including the right to vote for some elected officials such as an elected Philippine Assembly. It was not until 14 years later with the 1916 Philippine Autonomy Act, passed by the United States Congress, that America officially promised eventual independence, along with more Filipino control in the meantime over the Philippines. Finally in 1946, following World War II and the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines, the United States granted independence through the Treaty of Manila.
The End of the Philippine-American War
Casualties and Affects of the War
The war changed the cultural landscape of the islands and forced the people to deal with an estimated 34,000 to 220,000 Filipino casualties, the disestablishment of the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines, and the introduction of the English language in the islands as the primary language of government, education, and business, among families and educated individuals.
The Venezuela Crisis of 1902–1903 was a naval blockade put against against Venezuela by Britain, Germany and Italy.The whole tiff was over President Cipriano Castro's refusal to pay foreign debts. Castro assumed that the United States' Monroe Doctrine would forc the United States to prevent European military intervention, but at the time America saw it as European seizure of territory, rather than intervention. With prior promises that no such seizure would occur, the US allowed the action to go ahead without objection.
The blockade had Venezuela's small navy quickly disabled, but Castro refused to give up. Instead he agreed to submit some of the claims to international arbitration, which he had previously rejected. Germany initially objected to this, particularly as it felt some claims should be accepted by Venezuela without arbitration. The American President, Theodore Roosevelt, forced the Germans to back down by sending his own larger fleet under Admiral Dewey and threatening war if the Germans landed. With Castro failing to back down, the United States' pressure, and increasingly negative British and American public press reaction to the whole thing, the blockading nations agreed to a compromise. They maintained the blockade during negotiations over the details.
This all led to the signing of an agreement on February 13, 1903. The blockade was lifted. When the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague awarded preferential treatment to the blockading powers, the United States feared this would encourage future European intervention. This episode contributed to the development of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, asserting a right of the United States to intervene to "stabilize" the economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay theirown debts, so that would stop European intervention.

War #5- The Venezuela Crisis
America's Intervention
The Roosevelt Corollary
War #6- Banana Wars
The Banana Wars were a series of occupations, police actions, and interventions involving the United States and the Caribbean between the Spanish–American War. These military interventions were most often carried out by the United States Marine Corps. The Marines were involved so often that they developed a manual, The Strategy and Tactics of Small Wars in 1921. On occasion, the Navy provided gunfire support and Army troops were also used rarely.After the treaty of Paris, the United States conducted military interventions in Panama, Honduras, Nicaragua, Mexico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. The series of conflicts only ended with the withdrawal of troops from Haiti under President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

War #7- World War I
Works Cited
World War I was from 1914 to 1918. World War I was a national war between the allies (Italy, France, USA, etc) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, etc). After the sinking of the Lusitania and the interception of the Zimmermann Telegram, America's entrance into the war was inevitable.
The German general staff had appraised American military strength as being somewhere "between Belgium and Portugal." It wasn't incorrect, but it failed to account for the speed with which the rising industrial power could unleash additional forces. Wilson initially mobilized the navy to counter the threat from German submarines. He was also able to confiscate 97 German and Austrian ships in US ports, which were then used to transport 40,000 soldiers to Europe. About two million more "doughboys" would follow by the fall of 1918.
World War I Continued
End of World War I
This was the largest war up until this point and the casualties equaled more than 9 million. Eventually the Allies came out on top and the Treaty of Versailles was created along with a new League of Nations. This war put an end to America's war era for a while.
Americas War Status Today
Today most of Americas wars are fought overseas in the Eastern Hemisphere, mainly in Asia. Ouars are not as frequent today as they were back then because after the victories of all the previously stated wars, America was recognized as an independent and very powerful nation. That status still applies to the United States today.
Works Cited Continued
Works Cited Continued
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"How World War I Helped America Rise to Superpower Status." SPIEGEL ONLINE. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/how-world-war-i-helped-america-rise-to-superpower-status-a-944703.html (accessed March 17, 2014).
"Introduction." - The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War (Hispanic Division, Library of Congress). http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html (accessed March 16, 2014).

Wikimedia Foundation. "Katipunan." Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katipunan (accessed March 16, 2014).
"National Commission for Culture and the Arts." National Commission for Culture and the Arts. http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm=2&i=190 (accessed March 16, 2014).
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Royde-Smith, John. "World War I (1914-18)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648646/World-War-I (accessed March 16, 2014).
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The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Cuban Independence Movement (Cuban history)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/145651/Cuban-Independence-Movement (accessed March 17, 2014).
"The Philippine-American War, 1899–1902 - 1899–1913 - Milestones - Office of the Historian." The Philippine-American War, 1899–1902 - 1899–1913 - Milestones - Office of the Historian. http://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/war (accessed March 16, 2014).
"The Venezuela Crisis of 1895." History 382 US Diplomatic History. http://blogs.dickinson.edu/hist-382pinsker/2011/11/10/the-venezuela-crisis-of-1895/ (accessed March 17, 2014).
Wikimedia Foundation. "Treaty of Versailles." Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Versailles (accessed March 14, 2014).
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