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Copy of Childhood Obesity
Transcript of Copy of Childhood Obesity
Paediatric obesity has plagued Australian youth for decades.
Rates still remain high with 21-25% of Australian youth reported as being obese or overweight (Olds, Tomkinson, Farer & Maher, 2009)
Obesity leads to complications: diabetes, depression and low self-esteem, as well as a range of cardiovascular complications (Gill et al., 2009)
Key to a successful Class
A tool developed for children that uses a combination of pictures, numbers, and words to report exercise effort (Rice, 2015).
Has good concurrent validity for all age groups, and shows a good correlation between exertion, heart rate & VO2max in children >8yrs (Rice, 2015).
Address health issues: upstream approach to diabetes and cardiovascular fitness
Improve strength and flexibility
Promote a healthy lifestyle
Increase social involvement
Get children excited about being active!
Use of child oriented language
Make the class fun and engaging
Appropriate children's references
Strength and Cardio
Obstacle course & trunk exercises
Obese children have higher rates of musculoskeletal pain, including low back pain (Smith, Sumar & Dixon, 2014).
Strengthening of global back and core muscles has been proven to reduce amounts of low back pain (Hayden, Maurits, Van Tulder & Tomlinson, 2005).
Warm-up improves blood flow to muscles prior to engaging in more vigorous activity (Fradkin, Gabbe & Cameron, 2006).
Fun and engaging games incorporating physical activity are beneficial for adherence to activity in children (Eather et al., 2013).
Improve cardiovascular fitness (Ekblom-Bak et al., 2014; García‐Hermoso et al., 2013)
Incorporating strength training and plyometrics is recommended as a part of exercise (Department of Health, 2014).
Balance and Coordination
Works on hand-eye coordination (D’Hondt et al., 2013).
Acts as an active rest period
Dynamic balance is crucial to overall fitness to reduce risk of falls in overweight children (Goulding, Jones, Taylor, Piggot & Taylor, 2003).
Reduces risk of injury and helps to return to resting heart rate (Fradkin, Gabbe & Cameron, 2006; Takahashi, Okada, Hayano & Tamura, 2001).
Yoga incorporates stretching and has beneficial effects on weight loss and physiological markers in overweight children (Benavides & Caballero, 2009; Galantino, Galbavy & Quinn, 2008).
The OMNI Rate of Perceived Exertion Scale
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Feasible method to measure body fat percentages.
Valid measure that has high specificity, and successfully identifies childhood obesity (Javed et al., 2014; Widhalm, Schonegger, Huemer, & Auterith, 2001).
NB: A focus on increasing activity levels is paramount as weight measurements can be a barrier for exercise participation, leading to decreased motivation (Doak et al., 2005).
outcome measures cont'd
An accurate and reliable measure of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children
Improves exercise self-efficacy (Lubans et al., 2011; Trost, Kerr, Ward, & Pate, 2001).
BMI and accelerometer data will be collected on days 0 and 30, as well as 3-months post commencement of the exercise program
OMNI-RPE will be measured at the beginning and end of each class.
Aim to have children work at RPE 4-6
Exercises will be adjusted accordingly.
Targets whole body exercise
Balanced rest and exercise times
Comfortable and safe environment
Creative & child-friendly activities
Explanation of benefits of each exercise within instructions.
Use of simple language in instructions
ex: saying 'opposite' instead of 'contralateral'
Remember to assess and re-assess using outcome measures.
Obstacle Course, Core and Back Strength, Fitness Twister
Strength and cardio cont'd
Bean Bag Toss and River Stones
(Google Images, 2016)
Benavides, S., & Caballero, J. (2009). Ashtanga yoga for children and adolescents for weight management and psychological well being: an uncontrolled open pilot study. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 15(2), 110-114.
D'Hondt, E., Deforche, B., Gentier, I., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Vaeyens, R., Philippaerts, R., & Lenoir, M. (2013). A longitudinal analysis of gross motor coordination in overweight and obese children versus normal-weight peers. International journal of obesity, 37(1), 61-67.
Department of Health (2014). Fact Sheet: Children (5-12 years). Australian Government. Retrieved from: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-phys-act-guidelines/$File/FS-Children-5-12-Years.PDF
Doak, C.M., Visscher, T.L.S., Renders, C.M., & Seidell, J.C. (2005). The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a review of interventions and programmes. Obesity Reviews, 7, 111-136.
Eather, N., Morgan, P. J., & Lubans, D. R. (2013). Improving the fitness and physical activity levels of primary school children: Results of the Fit-4-Fun group randomized controlled trial. Preventive medicine, 56(1), 12-19.
Ekblom-Bak, E., Ekblom, B., Vikström, M., de Faire, U., & Hellénius, M. L. (2014). The importance of non-exercise physical activity for cardiovascular health and longevity. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(3), 233-238.
Fradkin, A.J., Gabbe, B.J., & Cameron, P.A. (2006). Does warming up prevent injury in sport? The evidence from randomized controlled trials. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9(3), 214-220.
Galantino, M. L., Galbavy, R., & Quinn, L. (2008). Therapeutic effects of yoga for children: a systematic review of the literature. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 20(1), 66-80.
García‐Hermoso, A., Saavedra, J. M., & Escalante, Y. (2013). Effects of exercise on resting blood pressure in obese children: a meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, 14(11), 919-928.
Gill, T. P., Baur, L. A., Bauman, A. E., Steinbeck, K. S., Storlien, L. H., Fiatarone Singh, M. A., ... & Caterson, I. D. (2009). Childhood obesity in Australia remains a widespread health concern that warrants population-wide prevention programs. Medical Journal of Australia, 190(3), 146.
Goulding, A., Jones, I. E., Taylor, R. W., Piggot, J. M., & Taylor, D. (2003). Dynamic and static tests of balance and postural sway in boys: effects of previous wrist bone fractures and high adiposity. Gait & Posture, 17(2), 136-141
Hayden, J. A., Van Tulder, M. W., & Tomlinson, G. (2005). Systematic review: strategies for using exercise therapy to improve outcomes in chronic low back pain. Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(9), 776-785.
Javed, A., Jumean, M., Murad, M.H., Okorodudu, D., Kumar, S., Somers, V.K., Sochor, O., & Lopez-Jimenez, F. (2014). Diagnostic performance of body mass index to identify obesity as defined by body adiposity in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatric Obesity, 10, 234-244.
Lubans, D.R., Hesketh, K., Cliff, D.P., Barnett, L.M., Salmon, J., Dollman, J., Morgan, P.J., Hills, A.P., & Hardy, L.L. (2011). A systematic review of the validity and reliability of sedentary behaviour measures used with children and adolescents. Obesity Reviews, 12(10), 781- 799.
Olds, T. S., Tomkinson, G. R., Ferrar, K. E., & Maher, C. A. (2010). Trends in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in Australia between 1985 and 2008. International Journal of Obesity, 34(1), 57-66.
Rice, K.R. (2015). Age related differences in the validity of the OMNI perceived exertion scale during lifestyle activities. Pediatric Exercise Science, 27, 95-101.
Smith, S. M., Sumar, B., & Dixon, K. A. (2014). Musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children. International Journal of Obesity, 38(1), 11-15.
Takahashi, T., Okada, A., Hayano, J., & Tamura, T. (2001). Influence of cool-down exercise on autonomic control of heart rate during recovery from dynamic exercise. Frontiers of Medical and Biological Engineering, 11(4), 249-259.
Trost, S.G., Kerr, L.M., Ward, D.S., & Pate, R.R. (2001). Physical activity and determinants of physical activity in obese and non-obese children. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders, 25(6), 822-830.
Widhalm, K., Schonegger, K., Huemer, C. & Auterith, A. (2001). Does the BMI reflect body fat in obese children and adolescents? A study using the TOBEC method. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders, 25(2), 279-285.
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