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Patterns and Sustainability:

Bangladesh
by

Ramisa Anjum Anwar

on 28 September 2014

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Transcript of Patterns and Sustainability:

Patterns and Sustainability:
Bangladesh

Physical environmental conditions that affect settlement patterns
Bangladesh is located in southern Asia, bordered by Burma to the southeast and India to the west, north and northeast. This country has a tropical monsoon climate.
Impacts of a natural disaster in urban centers
Effects of a monsoon are
power outages/ combustion
of electrical transformers,
deaths, heavy rainfall,
flooding, storm surges,
economic infrastructure,
physical infrastructure.
Impacts of continued urbanization
Positive effects could be more labor force, more buyers, more jobs, and more demand for goods and services.

Negative effects could be inadequate/no housing, unbalanced population, concentration in urban areas, environmental degradation, land space becomes limited, social and cultural conflicts, and deterioration of law and order situation in urban areas.
Effects of loss of agricultural land
Impacts of loss of habitat on wildlife
There is loss of forest, but no more than any other country. There is also shift of habitat to make up for the loss of forest.
Ganges river dolphin

Hispid hare

Hoolock gibbon


Most severely affected cities
Costs of natural disaster
Importance of endangered species
Effects of human settlement in the environment
Number of people affected by
The costs of a monsoon are deaths, loss of livestock, damaged crops, destruction of physical and economic infrastructure, and spread of disease and hunger
Land pollution comes from use of agrochemicals, violation of forest areas for agriculture and settlements, improper disposal of hazardous industrial waste materials, and urban sprawl. Also, natural disasters caused land loss.
Causes of water pollution are industrial waste, untreated community waste water, and chemical fertilizers and pesticides
Recently there has been a strict law to protect the country's endangered species. Extinct species affects the food chain and it decreases diversity. Animals hold many medicinal, agricultural, ecological, and commercial value.

The coastal areas of the country are mostly affected. These
areas include
Khulna, Barisal,
and Chittagong.

There is land erosion along the banks of the major river systems of the country.
The environmental effect means that the land will be barely above sea level
The economic effects can mean the total amount of agriculture produces decreases
The global effects can lead to global conflicts (famine and civil war)
The social effects may lead to food crisis and social conflicts (price manipulation at local level)
Urbanization effects of access to employment, housing, and resources
There would be a variety of jobs to choose from based on skills, and quality of life would be easy and better, however, gradually overpopulation could cause limitation in the growing settlement
Government's solutions
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There has been decentralization of administrative activities, and there are more laws to protect environmental and agricultural land. The government has developed policies to reduce regulation of private industry and curb population growth. Also, there are more rural based employment opportunities so that it does not get too populated in urban areas.
How?
Farmers and fishermen are most likely to move near:
monsoon climate
river ways
flat land
Emergency measures
Organizations have provided shelters, clean water, food, clothes, sleeping equipment, evacuation of an area in extreme cases
Practices adopted by individuals, communities or governments to make human settlements sustainable
Bangladesh's government now has a number of laws and regulations to address air pollution. There are also organizations that create awareness. For example:
Bangladesh Youth Environmental Initiative (BYEI)
Environment & Social Development Organization (ESDO)
Bangladesh Youth Society For Peace And Environment (BYSPE)
Two major reasons of air pollution is vehicular and industrial. It is a main environmental threat to health. It leads to poor health, causing 500,000 premature deaths. The quality has gotten worse after growth of vehicles, industrial and residential development
Every year about one per
cent of farm land in the
country is being converted
to non-agricultural uses
Conflicts that could arise in housing, industrial development and transportation
Houses can be blown away or crushed
down from natural disasters, and if it gets
too populated, it would get very crowded.
Industrial development could make the environment worse, by causing many types
of pollution and health sickness.
Transportation may be limited depending
on the number of people, and it may get
destroyed by earthquakes or monsoons.
The life expectancy of the population in Bangladesh is 70.36 years. For males, it is 68.38 years, and for females, it is 72.31 years. The infant mortality rate is approximately 59 deaths/ 1000 live births. The fertility rate is about 2 children per woman.
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