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Contained Animal Feeding Operations

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Kendra Bishop

on 11 December 2014

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Transcript of Contained Animal Feeding Operations

Specialized farms
Farrow (birth)
Feeder (fattening)
Finishing (slaughter)
Animals are confined & fed
No grazing
Manure (slurry) stored in lagoons/ponds, not applied to fields (no crops on site)
Reliance on antibiotics
Contracts with outside companies
Contained Animal Feeding Operations in America :
A Story of Swine

Environmental Impacts
- Manure produced by CAFO's is the most pressing environmental concern
- CAFO's can produce anywhere between 2,800 tons and 1.6 million tons a year
- Sources of contamination in soil can result from lagoon leaks, or runoff from application of manure as fertilizer

Water Quality Issues
1. Groundwater Contamination
What is a CAFO?
US Overview
Soil Contamination (accumulation of nutrients)
Manure can be comprised of the following:
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Ammonia
Bacteria/pathogens (
E.coli
)
Metals
Growth hormones
Antibiotics
Chemicals
National Maps
By: Kendra Bishop, Ashley Spurr and April Mitchell
Air Quality Issues
1. Degradation of Quality of Air in Community
Human Health
Availability of affordable proteins
Environmental Health Effects
--- Water Quality
--- Air Quality
--- Insect Vectors
--- Antibiotics
--- Property Values
Animal Health
- Air quality concerns when kept in confinement
- Ammonia
Swine- 20 ppm
Cattle -100 ppm
Chicken- 50 ppm
Turkey 10-40 ppm
Hydrogen Sulfide
Caused by anaerobic bacterial decomposition in manure slurry pits
The slurry pits are often located under the slatted floors of the animal facilities
Normal concentrations are <10 ppm and not harmful, but when the slurry is agitated or drained levels of 1,000 ppm may be suddenly released
Acutely toxic levels are species dependent, 500 ppm (rat)- 4,000 ppm (chicken)
Particulates
Very fine dust, up to 40 % inhalable
Primarily dried fecal matter and feed dust
Dried fecal matter is heavily contaminated with microbes
- Annual estimation of 1.2-1.37 billion tons of waste per year by livestock animals which is 3-20 times more than human waste
- The cost to clean up contaminated soil under every U.S hog and dairy CAFO would approach $4.1 billion
General AFO Sizes
Large CAFOs:
700+ dairy cattle
1,000+ beef cattle
2,500+ hogs >55lbs
10,000+ hogs <55 lbs
30,000+ broiler chickens (for meat) w/liquid manure handling system
125,000+ broiler chickens w/o liquid manure handling system
History & Current Trends
Hog AFO Characteristics
Regulatory Agencies & Requirements
National
USDA - US Department of Agriculture
EPA - Environmental Protection Agency
NRCS - Natural Resource Conservation Service (Division of USDA)

Arkansas
ADEQ - AR Dept. of Environmental Quality
Arkansas Livestock and Poultry Commission
Hot Spots
Hogs
Iowa
North Carolina

Chickens
Georgia
Arkansas

Cattle
Kansas
Nebraska
Iowa
Arkansas Overview
Economic Aspects
Number of Operations
Regional Issue
According to the EPA:
Contained animal feeding operations (CAFO) same as AFO, but are designated sites of point source pollution
Animals confined and fed 45+ days within 12 months
Crops/vegetation not grown or sustained
Animals do not graze
Medium AFOs:
200-699 dairy cattle
300-999 beef cattle
750-2,499 hogs >55 lbs
3,000-9,999 hogs <55lbs
9,000-29,999 broiler chickens w/liquid manure handling system
37,500-124,999 broiler chickens w/o liquid manure handling system
USDA, MacDonald/ McBride 2009
Union of Concerned Scientists, Gurian-Sherman, 2008
2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from CAFOs and Climate Change
Manure Spills
- When hundreds of thousands or millions of gallons of animal waste spill into a stream, river or estuary, a series of cascading effects results in environmental externalities
Subsidies
Direct
- payments directly to CAFOs for pollution reduction methods
Indirect
- payments to grain farmers, lowering CAFO operating costs
"
Virtual
" - societal costs via environmental and health damage
EQIP monies
USDA spent $16 billion annually btwn FY 1996 - FY 2002
Cost
Feed (60%)
Antibiotics (many times incorporated into feed)
Profit
Iowa 2006, CAFO profits topped $3.65 billion dollars
Iowa produced ~17.2 million hogs in Dec. 2006
Depreciation of Property Values
Schools
Government Operations
Scale economics
On average, larger farms realize higher profits - strong incentive for operators to grow larger.
Lower prices can squeeze smaller farms with higher costs, causing many to exit, to grow, or to explore niche markets for differentiated products.
Larger farms utilize greater amounts of antibiotics – more animals in less space = breeding ground for disease
Union of Concerned Scientists, Gurian-Sherman 2008
CDC, Hribar 2010
Disposal of Manure
1. Ground application of manure to use as fertilizer
2. Pumping liquefied manure onto spray fields
3. Ship off site
4. Storage in lagoons
CDC, Hribar 2010
CDC, Hribar 2010
- Runoff from land application of manure
- Leaching from manure that has improperly spread on land
- Leaks in storage tanks
Source: http://media.jrn.com/images/POLLUTE06G.jpg
Source: http://www.inindianawater.org/uploads/lg_1316616066b973fbff684566ace1a06c2f325f34c8.jpeg
According to the EPA's 2000 National Water Quality Inventory:
29 states identified animal feeding operations as contributing to water quality impairment
The EPA estimates 53% of the population relies on groundwater for drinking water (EPA, 2004)
The amount of pollution found in groundwater after it has been contaminated by a CAFO, depends on:
--- the proximity of the aquifer to the CAFO
--- the size of the CAFO
--- whether storage of manure is lined properly
--- type of subsoil present
--- depth of the groundwater
CDC, Hribar 2010
2. Surface Water Contamination
Source: http://www.stakeholderforum.org/sf/images/stories/danube.jpg
- According to the EPA: states with high concentrations of CAFOs experience on average 20-30 serious water quality problems per year as a result of poor manure management
- Soil erosion can lead to pollution- as the pollutants can bond to eroded soil and travel to watersheds (EPA, 2001)
Source: http://www.choicesmagazine.org/2007-2/grabbag/2007-2-06Figure1.jpg
Methods for Contamination of Surface Water
1. Surface discharge can be caused by heavy storms or floods that cause lagoons to overfill leaking into nearby bodies of water
2. Pollutants can travel over land through surface drainage systems to bodies of water
3. Discharged through man-made ditches or flushing systems
4. Direct contact with surface water passing through a farm
CDC, Hribar 2010
3. Eutrophication
- Contamination of surface water from CAFOS adds to the build up of nitrates
- Ammonia can convert into nitrates, which can cause nutrient overloads in surface waters (EPA, 1998)
- This build up nutrients in particular nitrates can lead to oxygen depletion and cause algal blooms

Source: http://www.inindianawater.org/uploads/lg_13166160187c5a3991b4220273389907d865d9a76f.jpeg
Algal blooms can contain toxic algae and other micro-organisms including
Pfiesteria
which has caused large fish kills in North Carolina, Maryland and the Cheseapake Bay area (Spellman & Whiting, 2007)
Source: http://wiki.dickinson.edu/images/thumb/4/40/Red_Tide.jpg/275px-Red_Tide.jpg
- Decomposition of animal manure is primary cause of gaseous emissions
- Primary air pollutants found in CAFOs are:
Ammonia
Hydrogen Sulfide
Methane
Particulate Matter
- Manure is often "stabilized" in anaerobic lagoons, which reduces volatility and odor of these particulates
- Primary air emissions are due to the application of manure to the land itself as fertilizer
Source: http://glorietageo.com/wp-content/uploads/composite_cone.jpg
Source: CDC, Hribar 2008
Source: http://nocafos.org/pageimages/Jan31-05Culbert.jpg
Ventilation systems in CAFO buildings can also be the cause of releasing pollutants into the air

Example
- Research by Iowa State University looked at Tyson Chicken CAFO sites and their chicken houses in Western Kentucky

Union of Concerned Scientists, Gurian- Sherman (2008)
Source: http://www.upc-online.org/pics/washingtonian/72.jpg
Sources
Andreasen, J. H. (2007). Concentrated animal feeding operations: A program in transition. Natural Resources & Environment, 21(4), 45-47, 63.
Burkholder, J., Libra, B., Weyer, P., Heathcote, S., Kolpin, D., Thorne, P.S., & Wichman, M. (2006). Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on water quality. Environmental Health Perspectives, 308-12.
Gurian-Sherman, D. (2008) CAFOS Uncovered- The untold costs of confined animal feeding operations. Union of Concerned Scientists
Jongbloed, A.W, and Lenis, N.P. (1998). Environmental concerns about animal manure. Journal of Animal Science, 2641-648.
Mullen, J. D., & Centner, T. J. (2004). Impacts of adjusting environmental regulations when enforcement authority is diffuse: Confined animal feeding operations and environmental quality. Review of Agricultural Economics,26(2), 209-219.

Case Studies by Kansas Geological Survey and US Geological Survey
- North Carolina study noted that groundwater near 11 swine storage lagoons the average nitrogen concentration was 143 mg/L
Union of Concerned Scientists, Gurian-Sherman 2008
- Livestock global greenhouse gas emissions -18%
- Livestock United States emissions- 7%
EPA attributes manure management as the fourth leading cause of nitrous oxide emissions and the fifth leading source of methane emissions (EPA, 2009)
Source: http://imet.csus.edu/imet9/portfolio/mighetto_valerie/282/images/methane_chart.gif
Amount of greenhouse gases emitted dependent on:
Storage system used by the CAFO
Use of lagoons to store excess manure anaerobically greatly increases methane emissions
Manure used as fertilizer doesn't emit as much methane
Livestock themselves produce a large amount of methane through a process called enteric fermentation
Source: http://www.wattagnet.com/uploadedImages/WattAgNet/Articles/Feed/0709FIgreencow1.jpg
Species Impacts
- Loss of species diversity in livestock
- Loss of habitat for other species which may result in extinction (CAFO the Book, 2008)
-Livestock has been estimated to contribute about 15% of the inorganic nitrogen entering the Gulf of Mexico (Union of Concerned Scientists, 2008)
Pollution of soil, water and air
Land degradation
Loss of biodiversity
Lossof genetic diversity of livestock
Species extinctions
Source: http://www.ieet.org/images/uploads/ff20130726a.jpg
Source: https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/-jO819JYvN9o/TXZENrcwB7I/AAAAAAAAAJE/gyVN8Zxc4l8/s1600/cafo-fish-algae-bloom-585-mfk020311.jpg
Wisconsin Manure Spills 2013
Airborne Bacteria and Fungi
Total microbial concentration (cfu per cubic meter) range from 100,000-10,000,000
Maximum concentration for swine health is approximately 430,000
Antibiotics
70% of antibiotics used in the US are given to beef cattle, hogs, and chickens
Identical or near-identical to human drugs
Concern for antibiotic- resistant strains of bacteria
Fewer options exist for people who become infected with antibiotic-resistant pathogens
Growing movement to ban non-therapeutic use of antibiotics in animals
Source: http://www.redicecreations.com/ul_img/26930gutbac.jpg
Over 88% of US swine are given sub-therapeutic antibiotics
Property Values
Property value decrease near CAFOs
3- mile radius= 6.6 % drop
1/10-mile radius= 88% decreae
>2 mile= negligible
Socioeconomic problem?
Source: http://www.cafothebook.org/images/essays_6c.jpg
www.keepantibioticsworking.com
- Livestock operations for the state have spilled more than 1 million gallons of manure in 2013 (Department of Natural Resources, 2014)
- Less than 1% of all the wasted produced by CAFO cattle (Erb, 2014)
Source: http://pubs.rsc.org/services/images/RSCpubs.ePlatform.Service.FreeContent.ImageService.svc/ImageService/Articleimage/2011/EM/c1em10553a/c1em10553a-f1.gif
Source: http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/onlcourse/chm110/labs/images/no32002.gif
Source: http://media.treehugger.com/assets/images/2011/10/20101005-hungary-toxic-sludge02.jpg
Discussion Questions
All US AFOs
US Hog Operations
EQIP - Environmental Quality Incentive Program
1950-60s Poultry operations grew exponentially
1972 Clean Water Act – regulations for livestock and poultry
1990s Hog production grew like poultry industry did 30 years earlier.
2001 EPA – new regulations for largest CAFOs to manage manure according to a nutrient management plan (implemented 2003)
Beef and dairy cattle factories currently experiencing similar growth as hogs and poultry before them
Technological advancements for feeding, genetic screening, improved breeding methods and meat processing have streamlined processes and reduced labor costs.
Hot Spots by county:
49.01 - 92 CAFOs
Benton
Washington
17 - 49 CAFOs
Carroll
Madison
Johnson
Pope
Logan
Yell
Sebastian
Polk
Hempstead
Cleveland
Lincoln
C & H Hog Farm, Inc.
Owned by Cargill (based out of MN)
Proposed project:
Newton County, AR
630 Acres
6,500 AUs (Hogs)
17 separate hog waste application fields
11 adjacent to Big Creek
Big Creek - major tributary of Buffalo River
Water Quality
Manure
2,800 to 1.6 million tons of manure
More manure than some US cities
3x to 20x more manure from livestock than from people in the US
Sewage treatment plants are required for human waste, but not for livestock waste.

Water Quality
Water may be contaminated by runoff from manure improperly spread on the land
Water may be contaminated by overflow, leeching, or breaks in storage lagoons
CAFOs are required to have permits and limit the levels of manure discharge, but handling such large quantities inevitably causes accidental releases

Water Quality
*Pathogens
*Nitrates
-Nitrate poisoning
-Nutrient overloads
*Ammonia
-Oxygen depletion
*Nutrient overloads
*Hormones
Air Quality
Air Quality Concerns
Ammonia
Hydrogen Sulfide
Methane
Carbon Dioxide
Particulates
*Methane
*Carbon dioxide
*Nitrous oxide
Globally 18%
US 7%
Greenhouse Gasses and Climate Change
Air Quality
Odors
*Malodors up to 6 miles away
*3 miles is the most common distance
*Socioeconomic concerns

Air Quality
School Proximity to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and Prevalence of Asthma in Students
Insect Vectors
1
. What can everyday citizens do to better this system?

2
. How can governments, industry and advocacy groups come together to address issues with CAFOs?

3
. As Environmental Scientists in training, what suggestions could you make to these different groups? How would your interests and expertise improve our agriculture & livestock production?
Houseflies
--Breed in manure
Stable Flies
--Breed in decaying organic material such as bedding material
10-day life cycle
Spread pathogens when they travel from manure and land on human food

After odors, flies are the most common complaint of residents living near CAFOs
Ohio Department of Health research indicates that residences within 1/2 mile of a poultry CAFO (egg production) had 83 times the average number of house flies compared to control sites.
Air Quality
Hogs vs Cattle
Anthony, Renee. “Clearing the Air in CAFOs.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. (2014)
Bowman, MA, Angella. "Increased Animal Waste Production From Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations(C AFOs): Potential Implications for Public and Environmental Health." The Nebraska Center for Rural Health Research Occasional Paper Series 2 (2000)
Funk, Julie A. "The Effect of Subtherapeutic Chlortetracycline on Antimicrobial Resistance in the Fecal Flora of Swine." Microbial Drug Resistance 12.3 (2006): 210-18.
Hribar, Carrie, MA. Understanding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and Their Impact on Communities. Center for Disease Control. (2010)
Wing, Steve and Wolf, Susanne. “Intensive Livestock Operations, Health, and Quality of Life among Eastern North Carolina Residents” Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA (2000)

Sources
Sources Cont.
National Data
2007
2007
Benton
Washington
Carroll
Madison
Johnson
Pope
Logan
Sebastian
Yell
Polk
Hempstead
Cleveland
Lincoln
776 Total AR AFOs
Requirements (National & State)
1. Liquid animal waste disposal permit (ADEQ)
2. Nutrient management plan (NRCS)
3. Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS)
Will discuss further in Economics Section
Newton
MacDonald/McBride 2009
Technological improvements include biological, mechanical and chemical
i. Mechanical - Housing and feed practices
ii. Biological – Improved breeding and genetic testing
iii. Chemical – Animal pharmaceuticals, i.e. antibiotic use for lower mortality rate and disease prevention/reduction
Npca.org,. (2014). Industrial Pig Farm Will Harm the Buffalo River
National Parks Conservation Association. Retrieved 15 November 2014, from http://www.npca.org/about-us/regional-offices/southeast/industrial-pig-farm.html
Buffaloriveralliance.org,. (2014). Local Mount Judea Hog CAFO Facts.
Retrieved 15 November 2014, from http://buffaloriveralliance.org/page-1547312
Nrcs.usda.gov,. (2014). Environmental Quality Incentives Program | NRCS .
Retrieved 11 November 2014, from http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/m
Buckner, Edmund, Richarson, La’Tonya, Felsman, Robert, Daniels,
Michael, and Dennis, Sam. Cooperative Extension Program, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. (2013, October 28). “Environmental Issues for Small Swine Farmers.” Animal Science.
Retrieved 17 October 2014, from http://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/FSA-9518.pdf
MacDonald, James M., and McBride, William D. The Transformation of
U.S. Livestock Agriculture: Scale, Efficiency, and Risks. A Report from the Economic Research Service. United States Department of Agriculture. EI Bulletin 43. January 2009. http://www.agmanager.info/about/contributors/Presentations/Langemeier/MacdonaldMcbride_2009.pdf
Buffaloriveralliance.org
Npca.org
Source: http://www.delaval.com/ImageVaultFiles/id_2198/cf_7/Manure-handling_types-of-manure.jpg
Source: http://blogs.rsc.org/mt/files/2012/10/spring-water-bottle_shutterstock_65501929.jpg
Source: http://geography.unc.edu/information/news/docs/maps/2009-gis-day/nc/hillaryn_lab6_resubmission_med.jpg
Source: http://iowawatch.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/files/2013/05/ManureSpillsIowa.jpg
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