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Water Project: Mali

By: Alyssa, Kelsey, Joey and Derrick
by

Alyssa Alyssa

on 23 March 2011

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Transcript of Water Project: Mali

Mali Background Information Mali gained its independence from France on September 22, 1960. It is currently a stable republic government that is headed by a widely popular President Amadou Toumani Toure. (CIA World Fact Book) Why Mali? Because of environmental factors, social factors, and disease, Mali needs clean water to enhance their quality of life and prosper. Environmental Drought Because of many droughts, animals are moving to the Niger and it's tributaries, the Malian's main water source. These animals carry many diseases that are then transfered to the water.(US Department of State)

Mali got less than 40 inches of rainfall in 2009. ( Mali: Geography, People, Politics, Gov., Economy, Transport)

Killed 40% of Mali's livestock (US Dept. of State)

65% of the country is made up of desert.(Deserts in Mali-UEN) Niger River The Niger River is being polluted by industrialization and waste from companies. (Pollution Chemistry of the River Niger and Its Tributaries: Characteristics of Industrial Waste Effluents) This pollution contributes to the contraction of illnesses such as typhoid, cholera, malaria, and other various digestive illnesses.

In the water is Salmonella, (the cause of typhoid), streptococcus, (the cause of rheumatic fever and pneumonia) (Controlling Sources of Pollution in the River Niger), and oil which is full of toxins. Social Factors Economy Population Density Birthrate

Among the top 25 poorest countries in the world.

Most of the economy is based on cotton and gold mining.

Fishing is a large industry, but recent reoccuring droughts have created setbacks in the fishing industry. The fertility rate is 6.7 children per woman. (Case Study: Population and Water Issues)

The birthrate in 2007 was 49.6 births per 1,000 people in the population at mid year. (Wikipedia)

46% of the population is less than 15 years old. (Case Study: Mali Population and Water Issues) Disease 80% of diseases are transmitted through water (Managing Water and Health Issues in Mali)
Salmonella in the Niger River is the cause of Typhoid Fever (Typhoid Fever- PubMed Health)
Hepatitis A: Contracted by drinking and eating substances that came into contact with any kind if excretion of an infected individual (Hepatitis A- PubMed Health). As Americans, we use 2.5 cubic kilometers of water per year, per person. Malians only draw out 6.55 cubic kilometers for their entire population. If you had that little access to clean water, wouldn't you drink whatever you could find? The population is 13,796,354 people as of July 2010. (World Bank, World Development Indicators-Google Public Data)
The majority of these people live near the Niger River and its tributaries. Unfortunately, this lack of water does force people to drink whatever they find. This leads to disease. Guinea Worm Guinea Worm is a long, white parasite that lives in the human body. This painful disease can be contracted by drinking stagnant water contaminated with the Guinea worm larvae. It can be up to twelve feet long and is as thick as horse hair. Mali is one of the three countries left that still have people infected with this terrible disease. Fact: Mali has some of the worst health statistics in the world. About 106 Malian babies out of 1,000 die before their first birthday.
-(Thomas O'Toole, pg 43.) Cholera Cholera- An infection of the small intestine that causes large amounts of watery diarrhea Because of the watery diarrhea many cholera patients die of dehydration. The impact of LifeStraws could change the lives of Mali, a country mainly populated with children. Mali is in poverty, but the country has a bright future If Mali is given Lifestraws, their government can use what excess funds there are for its developing economy. Or it could be used to help clean up the Niger River that people depend on for water EACH AND EVERY DAY. "All these sources of pollution can be a real cause of outbreak of various diseases such as typhoid, cholera, malaria, various digestive diseases and even cancer that can affect the population."- WaterWiki "All local water should be considered contaminated." Only half of the population has access to medicine. There are .08 physicians per 1,000 people. "Interventions to mitigate the incidence of childhood diarrhea and degraded water quality are limited by on going socio-economic, cultural, and environmental factors."
-U.S. National Library of Medicine. Since the average Malian uses 35 liters of water a day, by the year 2016 the Malian population willl require 490,000,000 liters of fresh water to keep its 14,000,000 people alive. (Definition of Guinea Worm Disease) (We Use How Much Water? Scary Water Footprints, Country by Country) (Controlling Sources of Pollution in the River Niger) (CIA The World Factbook) (CIA The World Factbook) IAMAT-Mali-Travel Vaccinations, Malaria, Food and Water Safety (NationMaster-Malian Health Statistics) (Water Quality and Waterborne Disease in the Niger River Inland Delta, Mali: A Study of Local Knowledge and Response) y=198970.89x - 387156592.8 Mali Population And Water Needs So long story short, Mali's growing population will soon have great needs for clean water. But Mali's government, which scored a 2.9 on the Corruption Perception Index (CIA World Fact Book), isn't going to do anything about it. That's where we come in. If your water supply were polluted with Salmonella and other disease causing bacteria, what would you do? You'd probably go to your water supplier and complain, demanding compensation. What we don't realize is that is a luxury.
People in Mali have no one to fix their water problems except for the international aid that they depend on. A river can't clean itself when it is continually being polluted by industry and farm-runoff. So while Mali builds up its economy, it needs help with means of getting clean drinking water Or perhaps it could be put to use in Mali's strong anti-terrorist initiatives. (CASE STUDY: MALI Population and Water Issues, Hamady N'Djimet Al) We can help. We can send LifeStraws that will help stop the continuation of diseases that kill thousands. Regardless of where Mali goes from here There are still people there who need help There are still people dying of diseases that could be prevented There are still people looking for a clean drink of water And WE CAN HELP Will you? "CIA-The World Factbook". Welcome to the CIA website- Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 25 Feb. 2011. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ml.html
"NationMaster-Malian Health Statistics". NationMaster-World Statistics, Country Comparisons. Web. 25 Feb. 2011. http://www.nationmaster.com/country/ml-mali/health
"Managing Water and Health Issues in Mali". WaterWiki. Web. 25 Feb. 2011. http://waterwiki.net/index.php/Managing_Water_and_Health_Issues_in_Mali
"NationMaster-Malian Government Statistics". NationMaster-World Statistics, Country Comparisons. Web. 26 Feb. 2011. http://www.nationmaster.com/country/ml-mali/gov-government
"Controlling Sources of Pollution in the River Niger". WaterWiki.net. 19 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Feb. 2011. http://waterwiki.net/index.php/Controlling_Sources_of_pollution_in_the_River_Niger
“Mali” Volume Library: a Modern Authoritative Reference for Home and School Use. Nashville, TN: Southwestern, 2004. 144. Print
Halverson, Williams, Ba, and Dunkel. “Water Quality and Waterborne Disease in the Niger River Inland Delta, Mali: A Study of Local Knowledge and response”. PubMed.gov: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Eleseiver Ltd. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21236722
“IAMAT-Mali-Travel Vaccinations, Malaria, Food and Water Safety.” Web. 01 Mar. 2011. http://www.iamat.org/country_profile.cfm?id=64
“World Bank, World Development Indicators-Google Public Data”. Google. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. http://www.google.com/publicdata?ds=wb-wdi&met=sp_pop_totl&idim=country:MLI&dl=en&=malipopulation
“Hepatitis A- PubMed Health”. Web. 03 Mar. 2011. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001323/
“Typhoid Fever- PubMed Health”. Web. 03 Mar. 2011. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002308/
“Pollution Chemistry of the River Niger and Its Tributaries: Characteristics of Industrial Waste Effluents”. SpringerLink. Web. 03 Mar. 2011. http://www.springerlink.com/content/n6t20k7534j4m636/
“NationMaster-Malian Geography Statistics”. NationMaster-World Statistics, Country Comparisons. Web. 03 Mar. 2011. http://www.nationmaster.com/country/ml-mali/geo-geography
“Mali” U.S. Department of State. Web. 10 Mar. 2011. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2828.htm
“We Use How Much Water? Scary Water Footprints, Country by Country”. Treehugger. Web. 11 Mar. 2011. http://www.treehugger.com/files/2009/06/we-use-how-much-water.php
"CASE STUDY: MALI Population and Water Issues, Hamady N'Djimet Al." AAAS - The World's Largest General Scientific Society. Web. 17 Mar. 2011. http://www.aaas.org/international/ehn/waterpop/mali.htm

Photograph. Treehugger. 14 June 2006. Web. 20 Mar. 2011. <http://www.treehugger.com/files/2007/06/study_says_13_m.php
Mali: Country Brief
The World Bank
http://go.worldbank.org/p6zopt6wno
Fri. 25 Feb. 2011

Thomas O’Toole
Mali—in Pictures
Lerner Publications
Minneapolis
1996
ISBN#: 0-8225-1869-4

Mali
U.S Department of State
http://www.state.gov/rpa/ei/bgn/2828.htm
Wed. 2 Mar. 2011

Economy-Mali-Export, Growth, Infrastructure
Encyclopedia of the Nations
Information about the countries of the world, United Nations, and world
http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/leaders/Africa/Mali-economy.html

CIA-The world factbook Welcome to the CIA website-Central Intelligence Agency
CIA.gov
http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/gcos/ml/html
Mon. 28 Feb. 2011

Mali Breakout-geography
Mali, PWNET
http://mali.pwnet.org/geography/geography-location.html
2002
Tues. 01. Mar. 2001


Mali Water Aid
Water Aid-Water and sanitation for all-international site
http://www.wateraid.org/international/what_we_do/Where_we_work/mali7
1 Mar.2011




Mali
Atlapedia online
http://www.atlapedia.com/online/countries/mali.html
thurs.10,mar.2011


Life Straw Personal. Photography. Nature For President. Web. 17 Mar. 2011. http://natureforpresident.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/LifeStraw-persona_02.gif


DiPiazza, Francesca. Mali In Pictures. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century, 2007. Print
“Case Study: Mali Population and Water Issues” Hamady N’Djrmet Al. AAAS –The World’s Largest General Scientific Society. Wed. 25 Feb. 2011
“Managing Water Issues in Mali.” Waterwiki.net. Web
The Niger River: Where many Malian Women Gather Contaminated Water; a photograph. Mali.
“Mali.” U.S Department of State. 20 Sept. 2010. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2828.htm
“Mali/Water Aid.” Water Aid-Water and Sanitation for all International Site. Web. 01 Mar 2011
“Largest Cities in Mali” Rainforestmongabay.com. Web 02 March 2011
‘Photos’ Generosity Water. Web 03 March 2011 http://generositywater.org/photos
McNeil Jr., Donald G. “Parasitic Disease: Guinea Worm Takes a Step Closer to Eradication, Jimmy… “New York Times Feb 28 2011
“Mali” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web 03 Mar 2011
Ondrasik, John. "Chances." Slice. Aware/Columbia Records, 2009. http://www.treehugger.com/files/2007/06/study_says_13_m.php Photographs
Ortega, Daniel. Dogon Kids, Mali. Photograph. Trek Earth. Web. <http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Africa/Mali/South/Mopti/bandiangara/photo21898.htm>.

Wojtkowiak, Swiatek. Dreaming About Water. Photograph. Trek Earth. Web. <http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Africa/Mali/North/Tombouctou/Niger/photo114414.htm>.

Bethoux, Olivier. Mali: Young Girls. Photograph. Trek Eath. Web. <http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Africa/Mali/South/Mopti/Mopti/photo142984.htm>.

Pakulski, Krzysztof. Dogon Girl. Photograph. Trek Earth. Web. http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Africa/Mali/South/Segou/Dogon_country/photo146835.htm

Pakulski, Krzysztof. Making Fun of Me. Photograph. Trek Earth. Web. <http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Africa/Mali/South/Segou/Dorou/photo154183.htm>.

Pakulski, Krzysztof. Photograph. Trek Earth. Web. <http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Africa/Mali/South/Segou/Dogon_country/photo208939.htm>.

Photograph. Medical Parasitology. Judy Sakanari, Ph.D. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://ib.berkeley.edu/courses/ib116/>.
Photographs from TrekEarth.com http://ecolocalizer.com/2009/05/22/worst-drought-in-26-years-threatens-the-survival-of-the-last-desert-elephants-in-west-africa/ http://www.alovelyworld.com/webmali/htmgb/mali136.htm http://www.ecouterre.com/u-s-eu-cotton-subsidies-cost-africa-250-million-a-year-says-new-report/ http://ib.berkeley.edu/courses/ib116/ http://www.bestcountryreports.com/Population_Map_Mali.html
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