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Gay Rights

Social Movements SOCL410

Katerina Stassen

on 10 April 2014

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Transcript of Gay Rights

The Westboro Baptist Church is one of the most vocal groups about their opposition with high media anti-gay picketing.

Anto Avedissian
Paul Bianco
Chad Keyworth
Katerina Stassen
Evan Stellman

Gay Rights
Major Organizations
The Legal System
Recent Events
December 10, 1924
The Society for Human Rights is founded by Henry Gerber in Chicago.
First gay rights organization.
Publishes first American publication for homosexuals, Friendship and Freedom.
Society soon disbands due to political pressure.
December 15, 1950
Federal government investigates employees' sexual orientation.
"constitute security risks" to the nation.
More than 4,380 gay men and women discharged from the military
500 fired from their jobs with the government.
Became known as the "lavender scare."
November 11, 1950
In Los Angeles, gay rights activist Harry Hay founds America’s first national gay rights organization.
The Mattachine Society

April, 1952
First publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders lists homosexuality as a sociopathic personality disturbance.
Criticized due to lack of empirical and scientific data.
September 21, 1955
Daughters of Bilitis becomes the first lesbian rights organization in the United States.
January 13, 1958
Case One, Inc. v. Olesen, the United States Supreme Court rules in favor of the First Amendment rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) magazine "One: The Homosexual Magazine."
First time the United States Supreme Court rules in favor of homosexuals.
June 28, 1969
Patrons of the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village riot when police officers attempt to raid the popular gay bar.
Leading to a three-day riot during which thousands of protestors receive only minimal local news coverage.
The event will be credited with reigniting the fire behind America's modern LGBT rights movement.
December 15, 1973
The board of the American Psychiatric Association votes to remove homosexuality from its list of mental illnesses.
October 14, 1979
An estimated 75,000 people participate in the National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights. LGBT people and straight allies demand equal civil rights and urge for the passage of protective civil rights legislature.
October 11, 1987
Hundreds of thousands of activists take part in the National March on Washington to demand that President Ronald Reagan address the AIDS crisis.
Although AIDS had been reported first in 1981, it is not until the end of his presidency that Reagan speaks publicly about the epidemic.
Created by the New York-based Visual AIDS, the red ribbon is adopted as a symbol of awareness and compassion for those living with HIV/AIDS.
December 21, 1993
The Department of Defense prohibits the U.S. Military from denying applicants based on their sexual orientation.
This policy is known as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell."
Repeals policy 17 years later allowing gays and lesbians to serve openly.
May 18, 2004
Massachusetts becomes the first state to legalize gay marriage.
In the following six years, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, Iowa and Washington D.C. will follow suit.
October 28, 2009
The Matthew Shepard Act is passed by Congress and signed into law by President Obama on October 28th.
The measure expands the 1969 U.S. Federal Hate Crime Law
Matthew Shepard was tortured and murdered near Laramie, Wyoming on October 7, 1998 because of his sexual orientation.
February 23, 2011
President Obama states his administration will no longer defend the Defense of Marriage Act, which bans the recognition of same-sex marriage.
The Human Rights Campaign
There are 901,996 same-sex couple households in the U.S.A
(1,803,994 Individuals)

Source: Census.gov
The Human Rights Campaign is America's largest civil rights organization working to achieve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender equality.
American Civil Liberties Union
The mission of the ACLU LGBT Project is the creation of a society in which lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people enjoy the constitutional rights of equality, privacy and personal autonomy, and freedom of expression and association.
LGBT Population by Metropolitan City:
San Fransisco, CA: 15.4%
Seattle, WA: 12.9%
Atlanta, GA: 12.8%
Detroit, MI: 1.5%
Richmond, VA: 3.4%
Cleveland, OH and Memphis, TN: 3.5%

Family Equality Council
The family equality council works to ensure equality for LGBT families by building community... and advancing social justice for all families.
Same Sex Couples by City:
New York, New York: 47,000
Los Angeles, CA: 12,000
Chicago, IL: 10,000

Source: Census.gov
Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation
Couples by State:
North Dakota-703
Couples by Concentration:
Washington, D.C.: 1.29%
North & South Dakota: 0.22%
Source: Census.gov
GLAAD is the only national gay and lesbian watchdog organization.


Armed Forces

Gay And Lesbian Medical Association
GLMA works to ensure equality in healthcare for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals and healthcare professionals.
Don't Ask...Don't Tell
Gay, Lesbian, & Straight Educators Network
GLSEN is the largest national organization of parents, educators, students, and other concerned citizens working to end homophobia in schools.
Current Laws
Lambada Legal Defense and Education Fund
States allowing same-sex marriage:
This is the largest legal organization in the United States working to secure civil rights for gays, lesbians, and persons with HIV via education, public policy work and litigation.
Through Legislation (11 + D.C.)
Illinois ('13), New York ('11), Vermont ('09), New Hampshire ('09), Maryland ('12), Connecticut ('08), Delaware ('13), Rhode Island ('13), Minnesota ('13), Hawaii ('13) Washington ('12), and Washington, D.C. ('09)

Through Supreme Court Decision (5)
: Massachusetts ('03), California ('08, '10), New Mexico ('13), Iowa ('09), New Jersey ('13)

Through Voter-Approved Measure (1)
: Maine ('12)
The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Community Center
This organization is the largest LGBT multi-service organization on the east coast and second largest center in the world.
"Save our Children" Campaign-1977-78
This campaign was a response to an ordinance passed in Miami, Florida that banned discrimination against the LGBT population in Housing, employment, and public accommodation.

Current Laws
Religious Opposition:
Homosexuality is perceived as a sin in most religions, including Evangelic, Catholic, Mormon, Orthodox, Jewish, and Islamic religions.

Public Opinion Opposition:

"How do I explain it to my kids?"

The views of an individual or group of people sparks a public opposition:

States banning same-sex marriage (9):
Oregon, Nevada, Arizona, Montana, Colorado, Missouri, Alaska, Mississippi, Tennessee

While these states ban same-sex marriage, they do not explicitly ban civil unions.

Current Laws
States banning both marriages and civil unions (18):
Idaho, Utah, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Wisconsin, Ohio, Kentucky, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, and North Carolina
This is the largest group
Current Laws
States with Constitiutional amendments banning same-sex marriage, civil unions, and "any marriage-like contract between unmarried persons" (2):

Virginia and Michigan
States neither banning nor allowing any type of same-sex union (4):

Wyoming, Indiana, Pennsylvania, West Virginia
Recent Developments
State Congress approved ban on civil unions and marriage
Congress approved the removal of ban on civil unions in 2014
Next legislature needs to approve the lift before a referendum in 2016
Recent Developments
New Hampshire:
Amendment to ban same-sex marriage rejected in state congress, 2010
Amendment to ban same-sex marriage
rejected in referendum, 2011
Recognized the marriage a same-sex couple married in Canada, 2014
Michigan, Texas, Arkansas, and Pennsylvania have legislation or decisions pending which would legalize same-sex unions or marriages, or recognize those unions or marriages from outside the state.
-Give government final say over armed
and naval forces.
"Homosexuality is not compatible with military service"
Don't ask, don't tell compromise.
Supreme court bans lift of policy.
President Obama calls for full repeal.
Republicans veto repeal. Uphold law.
House passes repeal

Gary J. Gates estimates there are approximately 9 million LGBT people (or 3.6% of the total population) in the U.S.A

*Based on a series of population based surveys

Case Study: Massachusetts
Judicial Decision
Approved by judicial decision

Goodridge vs Department of Public Health

7 same sex couples brought the lawsuit to state court

Judge Thomas Connolly ruled that the current law was constitutional, no fundamental right of gay couples to marry

Couples appealed to Supreme Judicial Court

Court ruled in favor of the couples, legalizing gay marriage.
Case Study: New York
Legislative Action
After Governor Eliot Spitzer resigned in 2008, Lieutenant Governor David Patterson vowed he would push for same-sex marriage equality

In 2008, the Democratic Party gained a majority in the New York senate.

A bill to legalize same-sex marriage passed the NY State Assembly in 2009, but it didn't go to a vote in the Senate because of uncertainty that it would pass.
Case Study: New York
Legislative Action
Bill passed in State Assembly again in 2011.

By this time, the bill had gained 5 more supporters in the state senate.

The bill was brought before the senate and passed by a margin of 33-29; 29 Democrat, 4 Republican supporters.
Senate passes repeal with 65-31
The Business of Coming Out
in the Pros
Case Study: Maine
Voter-Approved Measure
Same-sex marriage was made legal in 2009 by state legislature, but was repealed after going to a referendum by a margin of 53% to 47%

In 2012, EqualityMaine and Gay & Lesbian Advocates & Defenders teamed up to have a voter initiative placed on that year's ballot

105,000 supporters signed the petition and the question was placed on the ballot

The measure passed, again by a margin of 53% to 47%, a reversal of the previous referendum.
Prop 8. -Opposition to the LGBT community pushed to make Gay Marriage illegal in California.

2007 John Amaechi first gay former athlete
1981 Martina Navratovla Tennis Star
2013 Robbie Rogers comes out after
retirement at age 25
2014 Brittney Griner (No 1 overall pick)
2014 Jason Collins first active gay athlete in NBA
2014 Miachael Sam comes out to the word months before his NFL draft debut
2014 Winter Olympics
UK protests against Russian gay rights crackdown
Posted Wed 5 Feb 2014, 7:43pm AEDT
- Observers believe the crackdown is largely for the benefit of a domestic audience, with Russian president Vladimir Putin trying to gain popular support among conservative Russians.
- Homosexuality was decriminalised in Russia in 1993. The new laws do not ban homosexual acts but place restrictions on what can be said to children about homosexuality.
- Protests by Russia's LGBT community have been met with brutal opposition, with gangs attacking protesters while Russian police watched on.
- LGBT activists called for a boycott of the Olympics but none was forthcoming. Instead, US president Barack Obama chose Billie Jean King and Caitlin Cahow, both gay athletes, to represent the country at the opening and closing ceremonies.
Putin enters the Kremlin
Posted Wed 5 Feb 2014, 6:36pm AEDT
Moving Forward
- LGBT movement needs to be framed as Human Rights issue
- Around the world, the human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people are violated daily. Many of those who speak up for their rights are persecuted with impunity.
-If there are cultural, religious or historical views arguing against same-sex marriage, then they should be challenged and overcome, not used as an excuse for discrimination.

"protect the younger generation from the effects of homosexual propaganda".
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