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Organic Chemistry

Introduction to organic chemistry and organic compounds
by

Stephanie Duverge

on 12 April 2016

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Transcript of Organic Chemistry

Organic Compounds
Organic Chemistry
Carbon
All organic compounds contain carbon atoms. However, not all carbon containing compounds are classified as organic.
The uniqueness of carbon bonding results in many organic compounds.
Carbon-Carbon Bonding
Carbon atoms are unique in their ability to form long chains and rings of covalently bonded atoms.
Exceptions: Na CO , CO, and CO .
These are considered inorganics.
2 3
2
Organic compounds are covalently bonded compounds containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides.
The diversity of organic compounds results from the uniqueness of carbon's structure and bonding.

Carbon's electronic structure allows it to bind to itself to form chains and rings, to bond covalently to other elements, and to bind to himself and other elements in different arrangements.
This type of bonding is known as
catenation,
the covalent bonding of an element to itself to form chains or rings.
Carbon Bonding to Other Elements
Besides binding to other carbon atoms, carbon atoms bind readily to
elements with similar electronegativities.

Organic compounds consist of carbon and these other elements.

Other organic compounds contain hydrocarbon backbones to which other elements, primarily O, N, S,
and the halogens, are attached.
In addition, carbon atoms in these structures can be linked by single, double, or triple covalent bonds.
The bonding capabilities of carbon also allow for different arrangements of atoms.
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures are called isomers.
ethanol
dimethyl ether
Structural Formula
indicates the number and types of atoms present in a
molecule and also shows the bonding arrangement of the atoms.
ethane ethene ethyne
Carbon-Carbon Bonding
Methane
Saturated Hydrocarbon
Propane & Butane
Ethane
Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons are composed of only carbon and hydrogen; they are the simplest organic compounds.
Methane consists of a single carbon atom covalently bonded to four hydrogen atoms
When all the bonds in a hydrocarbon are single bonds, the molecule is called a saturated hydrocarbon.
Saturated hydrocarbons are named with an
–ane
ending.

Another name for these hydrocarbons is
alk
anes.
Is the second member of the series, contains 2 carbon atoms.
Propane is the third member of the series, contains 3 carbon atoms.

Butane contains 4 carbon atoms.
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons with double or triple bonds
Unsaturated compounds with at least
one double bond are named with
an
–ene
ending.
These compounds are called alk
enes.
eth
ene
Triple Bonds
Double Bonds
These are named with a
-yne
ending.
They are called the Alk
ynes
.
eth
yne
or
Acethylene
Isomers
Structural isomers
, also called “constitutional isomers,” are isomers in which the atoms are bonded together in different orders.
Geometric Isomers
Geometric isomers are isomers in which the order of atom bonding is the same but the arrangement of atoms in space is different.
cis
trans
1,2-dichloroethene
The cis molecule has both chlorine atoms on the same side.

The trans molecule, has the chlorine atoms on opposite and transversal positions.
Stephanie Duvergé
Full transcript