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Team A - Differentiated Instruction 10/8/12
Transcript of Team A - Differentiated Instruction 10/8/12
Heidi Heiss, and Jenny Poncia
October 8, 2012
Tamara Duford Differentiated Instruction Kagan, Dr. S., & Kagan, M. (2009). Kagan cooperative learning . San Clemente, Ca: Kagan Publishing.
Logan, B. (2011). Examining differentiated instruction: Teachers respond. Research in Higher Education Journal, 131-14.
Tomlinson, C. A. (1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Van de Walle, J. A., Karp, K. S., & Bay-Williams, J. M. (2010). Elementary and middle school mathematics: Teaching developmentally (7th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix ebook Collection database. References Lesson Plan Outline Differentiated
Instructional Issues Differentiating Instruction Trends In differentiated instruction, a teacher’s lesson plan includes strategies to support a wide range of diversity frequently found in classrooms (Tomlinson, 1999).
Today we will go over:
4 trends in differentiating instruction for math and science
Instructional issues regarding the use of the trends
A lesson plan outline that implements one trend Introduction (cont.) Diverse learners (students with a wide range of abilities, disabilities, and socioeconomic circumstances) in a regular classroom today pose substantial challenges to teachers (Van de Walle, Karp, & Bay-Williams, 2010).
Differentiated instruction addresses this issue and increases students’ critical thinking and comprehension skills. Introduction Cooperative Learning
Instructional Centers Cooperative learning can be used for both math and science. Cooperative learning involves structured interaction between students.
Teachers can differentiate instruction by implementing strategies that enhance individual learning styles using whole class activities, team activities, and cooperative projects and presentations.
“Cooperative learning, when properly implemented, is a powerful instructional approach resulting in a spectrum of positive outcomes” (Kagan & Kagan, 2009 chap. 12.1). Success depends on the four basic principles:
•Simultaneous Interaction(Kagan & Kagan, 2009) Technology can be used for math and science. Technology can maximize learning for all students by developing a deeper understanding of content, stimulating diverse interests and needs, and increasing proficiency in all areas (Van de Walle, Karp, Bay-Williams, 2010).
Technology offers teachers the advantage of differentiating instruction by:
•Incorporating software tools developed specifically for math.
•Implementing Internet-based applications through web browsers such as Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla’s Firefox (Van de Walle etal., 2010).
•Incorporating calculators and data collection devices. Tiered lessons can be implemented into both math and science classrooms. Teachers adapt the difficulty of tasks to coincide with higher and lower levels.
Tasks are based on the learning goals for all students (Van de Walle etal., 2010). Tiered lessons help teachers differentiate the level of difficulty through:
•Extent of teacher assistance
•Structure of Lesson
•Complexity of tasks
•Complexity of Process (Van de Walle, etal 2010). •Instructional ( or Learning) centers are best implemented for math and science.
•Teachers can differentiate instruction by implementing a variety of activities that are specific to the content topic.
•Incorporating centers helps to build social skills, such as cooperation, confidence, and tolerance for all learners.
•Learning centers help enhance multiple learning styles and multiple intelligences with the use of technology, manipulatives, and differentiated activities.
•Learning centers are less formal than cooperative learning, tend to have random placement of students, and focus more on individual goals. •Time Commitment to Curriculum
•Division of Time with Students
•Teacher Commitment to Continuing Education
•Lack of Training and Models of Success
•Loss of Basic Skills and Group Instruction Students are in and out of their classrooms today so it may be an issue to coordinate schedules.
Teachers can spend a lot of time teaching cooperative skills and determining how to pair or group different students so their personalities will mesh while reaching the principles of success.
Social issues such as appropriate interactions and differences in what has been taught to students at home come into play because of cultural differences. Cooperative Learning Issues Access to technology can trigger co-dependence on devices and lack of independent knowledge because of over- exposure, in other words, critical thinking and analysis are affected because of accessible answers at our fingertips.
Technology is not always reliable. When that happens, we are required to know how to use skills without relying on those devices to draw conclusions.
Technology is always changing so it is a lot to keep up with.
Students often have skills beyond that of teachers, so teachers are required to keep up with the trends/training. Technology Issues Independent/highest level students may have less interaction from teachers, which is not always fair.
Groupings can create labels/clicks and cause self-esteem issues.
Demands on teachers increase to develop individualized lessons.
Curriculums that incorporate cookie-cutter clusters may not fit the needs of all students.
Students begin with a staggered start but are expected to end at the same finishing point which is extremely difficult depending on the age and sophistication of students. Tiered Lesson Issues Centers are typically incorporated as student-centered activities; therefore teachers often deal with behavioral issues or issues with lack of student focus.
Monitoring learning during center time is difficult because students are engaged in a variety of different activities.
Centers need to be switched out and rotated regularly to expand learning or else they serve only as review.
Students who do not need the review waste time that could be spent learning new concepts.
Room arrangement plays a vital role because students need to view centers as learning-focused, not free time. Instructional Center Issues Tiered Lessons Instructional Centers Cooperative Learning Technology 5 minute video Goal: Student can list all the factors of a number and identifies that number as prime or composite.
Objective: Students will identify prime numbers and composite numbers with 85% accuracy.
Introduction: The teacher will review the concepts of prime numbers that students should be familiar with based on the previous lessons presented. Teacher will introduce and model expectations for the centers. After introductions, the teacher will split the class into groups. Each group will include a diverse mix of students that will benefit from working together (i.e. GT students w/low level learners, ELL students will proficient English speakers, etc.)
Common Core Standard (Cluster: Operations and Algebraic Thinking. Domain: Gain familiarity with factors and multiples. Code: 4.OA.4): Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1-100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is prime or composite.
Learning Centers (15 minutes each station):
1.Prime Number Hunting: On worksheets provided, students will circle the prime numbers and cross out all the non-primes in a race against time for most points scored. Worksheets increase in difficulty. GT students are expected to complete all worksheets.
2.Computer: Students will play Fruit Shoot (http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/mathgames/numbers/fruit_shoot_prime.htm):
They must play numbers to 50. Low level learner can play numbers to 20 and GT students must play numbers to 99. They can also choose between relaxed and timed mode.
Learning Centers (cont.)
3. Prime and composite number sort:
Students will use dice and a T-chart. They will take turns rolling the dice and decide as a group if it is prime or composite. The students will start with two dice and add an additional dice after each student has rolled twice. They will continue to add the dice up to 6 dice. They will write the number on the correct side of the T-chart, prime/composite.
Students will a Prime and Composite Numbers test where they must determine if the number the is prime or composite. The test will have 20 questions.