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History of Special Education Policy
Transcript of History of Special Education Policy
Creation of Institutions
Conditions of institutions
Considered a humane response to individuals with disabilities
Used to exclude individuals from society
Hierarchy of disabilities
Deafness and Blindness were considered 'teach-able'
The rise of parent and interest groups in lobbying and garnering public attention to education for disabled students.
John P. Frank
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Changed beliefs that all people could be educated and that all students can learn and have a right to learn.
It would later be used by special education advocates as a proponents for inclusion.
Behaviorism vs. eugenics
Psychoanalysis of trauma
National Association for Retarded Citizens was formed
A parent group, presently the ARC, that informed and developed as an interest group against institutionalization
Eunice Kennedy Shriver
Hope for Retarded Children
“Like diabetes, deafness, polio or other misfortune, mental retardation can happen in any family…the President of the United States.”
Presidential Panel for Mental Retardation (1965)
Findings uncovered a dearth of research and services for individuals with disabilities
National Institution of Child Health and Development
Intellectual and Developmental Disability Research Centers
Education and Secondary Education Act (1965)
Head Start (1965)
Nurture v. Nature
Process of Normalization
Continuation of prejudice
Parents' "chronic sorrow"
Denial of personhood
Public exposure to the conditions of institutions
Margaret Bourke-White: Letchworth Village (1932) & Arnold Genthe (1941)
Conditions continued into the 1970s (Geraldo Rivera 1972)
The Social Security Act (1935)
Provided match federal funds to states for the disabled
U.S. Office of Education created the Section for Exceptional Education (1946)
Litigation and Court Cases
Wyatt v. Stickney
PARC v. Penn
Mills v. Board of Education
Rehabilitation Act (1973)
Individuals with disabilities should not be discriminated against in any program funded by the federal government
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975)
"Free and appropriate public education" for all handicapped children
Financial support for states - federal government will provide 40% of the cost to educate students with disabilities
Individualized Education Plans (IEPs)
Dilemma of Difference
Students with disabilities taught in dedicated classrooms within ordinary public schools
Gardner's Theories of Intelligence (1982)
Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
Extended protections from the Rehabilitation Act beyond federally funded programs
Prohibits discrimination based on disability
Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (1990)
Re-authorization and current iteration of Education for All Handicapped Children Act
Students with disabilities educated in the same classroom as non-disabled peers
Ignited debate over what is better for the children with diagnosis vs. typically developing children
Contemporary Points of Interest
Response to Intervention (RTI)
Overrepresentation of minorities and males
Parental safeguards and rights for families
IEPs and 504 plans
Navigating rights and the emotional toll
Continuing research on special education
Person first language
Transition from school to adult services
No Child Left Behind (2001)
What does the history of special education tell you about when reform happens and what conditions permit change?
Where do you believe the disconnect exists between federal law and implementation?
Compare and contrast federal involvement in special education with federal involvement with other special populations.
Davies, G. (2007) “Transforming Special Education: The Genesis of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act,” in Davies, See Government Grow Education Politics from Johnson to Reagan. University Press of Kansas, 2007
Gillespie, J. & Losen, D. (2012) Opportunities suspended: The disparate impact of disciplinary
exclusion from school. The Civil Rights Project, UCLA. <http://civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/resources/projects/center-for-civil-rights-remedies/school-to-prison-folder/federal-reports/upcoming-ccrr-research/losen-gillespie-opportunity-suspended-2012.pdf>
Griffin, M. (2013) Seattle Special Education Advocacy and Advisory Council Position Paper. <http://www.seattleschools.org/modules/groups/homepagefiles/cms/1583136/File/SEAAC/Discipline-disproportionality-04132014.pdf>
Hechinger, J. (2007) “Schools Accused of Mainstreaming to Cut Costs,” The Wall Street Journal, December 14, 2007. Available at http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB119758950772128219.html
Minow, M. (1986) “The Dilemma of Difference,” in Minow, Making All the Difference: Inclusion, Exclusion, and American Law, Cornell University Press.
Solomon, A. (2012) “Autism” and “Down Syndrome” in Far From the Tree: Parents, Children and the Search for Identity. New York: Scribner.
Trent, J. W. (1995) “The Remaking of Mental Retardation,” in Trent, Inventing the Feeble Mind: A History of Mental Retardation in America. University of California Press.