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Naswa Amin

on 9 October 2013

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Transcript of OPERATING SYSTEMS – Assignment1

Windows and Linux
Operating Systems
Group 3 members:
Naswa bt Mohd Amin CA11049
Muhamad Izhan Fakri Bin Imran CA11117
Yeoh Yong Wei CA12062
Lai Wui Chung CD12037
Mohamad Saddam Bin Mohd Yakzan CD12064

what is Linux?
Linux is an operating system that evolved from a kernel
created by Linus Torvalds
Linux is not a program like a word processor and
is not a set of programs like an office suite.
Linux is an interface between computer/server hardware,
and the programs which run on it.
Microsoft Windows
A series of graphical interface operating systems
Developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft
Latest Windows

Windows 8
- The operating system was released to manufacturing on August 1, 2012, and was released for general availability on October 26, 2012.
- designed to be used on both tablets and the conventional PC

The Microsoft Surface tablet is released alongside Windows 8.
The first independent version
of Microsoft Windows, version 1.0, released
Windows Paint, Write, a simple word processor,
appointment "calendar", notepad, clock,
control panel, Clipboard, and RAM driver.
It also included the MS-DOS Executive
Version 2 proved slightly more popular than its predecessor.
Excel and Word for Windows
Version 3 scored a significant success.
Improved capabilities given to native applications
Better multitasking
Multimedia upgrade kits ; CD-ROM drive, sound card ..
made it impossible for consumers to run Windows 95 on a cheaper, non-Microsoft DOS.
included several minor improvements to Windows 3.0
included the new Explorer shell from Windows 95
included new hardware drivers and the FAT32 file system which supports disk partitions that are larger than 2 GB
It was successfully deployed both on the server and the workstation markets
upgraded Windows 98 with enhanced multimedia and Internet features from Windows 2000
The merging of the Windows NT/2000 and Windows 95/98/Me lines was finally achieved with Windows XP
update to Windows 2000 Server encompassing many new security features
a server product based on Windows Server 2003, designed for consumer use
intended to have enhanced security by introducing a new restricted user mode called User Account Control
builds on the technological and security advances first introduced with Windows Vista
faster booting, Device Stage, Windows PowerShell, less obtrusive User Account Control, multi-touch, and improved window management.
follows the release of Windows Home Server Power Pack 3 which added support for Windows 7 to Windows Home Server
1991 1992 1993 1996 1998 1999 2003 2005 2007
2010 2011
Linus Torvalds releases
the first Linux code
Linus licenses Linux
under the GPL
Slackware becomes first
widely adopted distribution
Linus chooses a penguin
as the Linux mascot
(why? Linus got bitten by a
penguin when visiting
an aquarium)
Tech giants begin announcing
platform support for Linux
Red Hat goes public
IBM runs famous Linux Ad
during Super Bowl
Linux appears on cover of
BusinessWeek that hails
Linux as greatly successful
The Linux Foundation is formed
for protection, promotion, and standardization
The Linux-based Android
becomes dominant Smartphone
OS in the United States
20th Anniversary of Linux,
continues to power the globe
Since 1991~to 2011
Milestones of the 20-year history
As of 2013,
the Linux 3.10
release had 15,803,499 lines of code.
1. Debian
2. Ubuntu
3. Fedora
4. Mint
5. Korea
Power Linux
The various distributions that Linux provides for your choice
Memory Management
the act of managing computer memory
The essential requirement of memory management
is to provide ways to dynamically allocate
portions of memory

(Ubuntu 8.04 LTS Desktop Edition)
(Windows 7)
No matter how much main memory boasts the system, Windows 7 still creates and uses a page file for virtual memory.
The virtual memory is referred as amount
of information temporarily stored
in a paging file.

Use priority-based preemptive scheduling algorithm

Schedule based on thread instead of process

32 level priority
- variable class [1-15]
- real-time class [16-31]
*0 – use for memory management
*static round-robin use in real-time class
higher value = higher priority

priority can be change except for real time class

it priority can be lower, but not lower than base priority

When variable-priority thread release from wait operation, priority is boosted

Amount boost depend on what the thread wait for:-
- keyboard I/O -> large increase
- disk operation -> moderate increase

preemptive, priority-based scheduling algorithm

2 ranges of priority
- Real-time [0 - 99]
- Nice value [100 - 140]

2 scheduling policy for static priority

all runable task keep in runqueue in each processor

each runqueue has 2 priority array:-
(a)Active array - contain tasks with remaining times in their time slice
(b) Expired array – contain expired tasks

Each priority arrays contain a list of tasks indexed according to the priority

When all task in the active array is finish or run out of time slice, both arrays swap

real-time tasks -> static priorities
non-real-time tasks dynamic priorities
dynamic priority +5 or -5
priority change based on interactivity of task
- longer sleep time -> -5
- shorter sleep time -> +5
when swapping happen, priority is recalculate.

7 priority classes, 6 relative priorities within each class.
lower value = higher priority
higher priority, higher time quantum

lower priority is favored

priority of the task that always exhaust their time slice (CPU bound) gradually decrease

long time need to finish the task

Normal Usage
Higher priority is favored

real time thread always have precedence over other threads

preempted thread priority will lower but not lower than base priority

server kernel in Ubuntu has its preemption turn off

kernel code runs until completion

The scheduler can't touch it until it's finished

can minimize any and all performance hits

Server Usage
server kernel does not has its preemption turn off

thread can be interrupted at any time

Conclusion - Windows is better in normal usage
Conclusion – Linux is better in server usage
is the most commonly used operating system created by Microsoft Company.

Bill Gates- Founder and Chairman of Microsoft Company.

Paul Allen - Co- Founder of Microsoft company with Bill Gates.
Limitation of Memory On
Linux (Ubuntu)
-minimum (equal to RAM)
_maximum (2 times of RAM)
Windows 7
-minimum (1.5 times of RAM)
_maximum (3 times of RAM)
Normal Usage
Server Usage
Full transcript