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Chapter 2: The Muslim World Expands
Transcript of Chapter 2: The Muslim World Expands
The Ottoman Empire
What were the causes of the rise and decline of Muslim empires between 1300 and 1700?
The Ottoman Empire
The Safavid Empire
The Mughal Empire
What you should expect to be able to answer:
After the founding of Islam and the life of Mohammed in the 6th century, Islam expands in all directions very quickly.
Small Islamic societies are created throughout the Middle East
Mongol expansion 1200 - 1300s
Destroys all of these early Islamic societies.
Region completely decimated and whole cities destroyed and forced to resettle.
From this destruction these communities are forced to rebuild
The outcome is the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires
What allowed these empires to be successful?
Global interconnectedness. Cross roads of the world
Contact with other civilization allows civilization to flourish
At first all three empires embrace contact with outside cultures
- Christian missionaries are even welcome
- Western Middle East (Turkey)
Muslim - Sunni
Strongest and longest lasting empire.
Very large and diverse
Turkish warrior clan (very strong military) well administered
At first they had very powerful and driven monarchs and steadily increased territory
Mehmed the Conqueror
Conquest of Constantinople – 1453
Capital of the Byzantine Empire (Christian)
Seen as the last remnants of the Roman Empire
Key geographic location (key to Asia for Europe)
- Whoever controls Constantinople controls the land based trade to Europe for Africa and Asia
Mehmed launched an attack on the city
- lasts seven weeks
o Turkish forces fired on city walls
• One of the cannons was 26ft long and fired 1200lbs boulders.
• A chain kept the Turkish navy from entering the cities harbor
• Solution was to drag 70 ships on greased runners over a hill and into the harbor
• Now the city could be attacked from two sides
Eventually the wall falls and Mehmed’s military entered the city
- Now called Istanbul
How would that make you feel if you were a European living in Constantinople?
How would you feel if you were a Ottoman soldier?
Huge psychological win for the Ottomans!!!
Ottomans now control a vast area
Allowed conquered people to have their own independence. (Local Rulers- must remain loyal to Ottoman Emperor)
Non-Muslims protected as long as they paid a tax
(pay tax and you could practice any religion and social custom)
Selim the Grim (Mehhmed’s son) - 1512
Ottomans take control of Islam’s holy cities
Selim (Sultan) very effective leader and general
With army Selim conquers
* Palestine (Israel and Syria)
* North Africa (Egypt)
* Arabia (modern day Saudi Arabia)
- Gains control of both Medina and Mecca
- The Magnificent
- The Law Giver
Ghazi's - Ottoman Warriors
Fought for Islam (and Christian loot)
Selim II (Son of Suleyman)
System with less complications of others attempting to take the throne.
Boys from conquered territories drafted/ kidnapped
Converted them to Islam
Educated them and trained them for bureaucratic positions or as soldiers
Loyal only to the Sultan
- 30,000 soldiers
- Very disciplined
- Heart of the Ottoman war machine
What makes a good ruler?
Trade with Europe influences diplomacy (creates alliances)
Epicenter for the development of Art, Math and Science (developed algebra)
Creating buildings and cities to show strength
The Safavid Empire
Safavids- Middle East (Iran) 1501
- Ism'ail (first leader) 12 years old
- Muslim - Shiite
(forced all territories to convert. If not put to death)
- Aggressive in expansion
- Mughal Emperor
Oversaw golden age from 1556-1605.
The Mughal Empire
Ottoman Empire expands into parts of Europe, Europe sees as a threat.
- Safavids use this to their advantage and are able to have a positive relationship with European Nations (both dislike Ottomans)
What is power?
- Ottomans were afraid of Safavid’s Shiite ideology
(would destabilize empire)
- Both empires battle on their borders
Safavid Soldiers thought Ismail made them invincible
(gunpowder weapons were unmanly/cowardly)
- Successors saw this as a issue and didn’t agree, modernized
Ottomans VS Safavids
I don't like the Ottomans!!!
Neither do I!!!
Want to be friends?
Shah Abbas (AKA- Shah the Great) 1587
Created Safavid Culture
- Combined ideas from Ottomans, Persians, and Arabs
Safavid Empire's Golden Age
Created two new (Loyal) armies
- Adopted artillery
*One Persian army
*One army modeled after Janissaries
* Punished corruption harshly
* Promoted only those who earned it
- Loyal and hard working
- Even hired foreigners
- Brought in European (Christian) Leaders
- Soon European merchants move in
- Industry increased
- Trade increased
- Art exchange increased
Cultural Blend- New Capital City
Chinese, Armenian, Persians
Very large and diverse
- Nomadic Turkish Warriors (Invaded India subcontinent 1500’s)
- Wanted to replicate Mongol empire
(Mughal = Persian word for Mongol)
Little interest in governing empire and spreading Islam, Just wanted to conquer territory
Mughal Empire- (India)
- Income tax (similar to US).
- Encouraged arts and literature.
- Open to others opinions and cultures
- No non-Muslim tax (free to practice whatever) - better for politics
- Hindu was allowed to exist
- kept most people happy
Muslim leaders received help/guidance from Hindus in controlling territories
(Religion does not matter as long as you are the best person for the job)
Moghul (Akbar's) Reform -Golden Age
Barbur at age 11
- Brilliant general that
conquered northern India
Ordered the building of the Taj Mahal
- Wife Mumtaz Mahal dies during child birth
- Built as a mausoleum
(as Beautiful as she was)
Decline of the Islamic Empires
- Muslim military's begin to purchase new technologies from Europe
Declining economy = less money = less military purchases = outdated military
* Purchased used and old cannons, guns, etc.
(Can’t keep up with Europe)
Islamic leaders want to maintain Islamic purity
- Start to shut down trade
- Lose good relationships non-Muslim countries.
Islamic empires lose ground to the Atlantic/ Western European world.
-Early 1700’s religious toleration began to decrease
- Conservative scholars see other opinions and religions as a problem
- Began to feel outside world was inferior (stopped accepting others opinions)
- Soon only Muslims were allowed to be administrators and political leaders
(Others were unholy and a threat to Islam)
o Illegal to print books (anti-Muslim ideas could not spread)
- Empires begin to lose standing/rank in the world.
- Less innovation, and Dynamic social life (Less contact with outside world)
- They felt as if they were the center of the world (people came to them and paid taxes)
Decline of the Ottoman Empire
- Suleyman changed rules of who inherited the throne.
* Resulted in weak sultans that led to very slow 350 year decline.
Economics during decline
Economies were based on expansion and gaining new territory
* Finite amount of resources
* More you land and resources you control = power
- Islamic Empires military expansion slows = economy slows
European trade increases
- European nations begin to expand their trade in Islamic Empires territory
- Europe takes control of trade by using Muslim ports
* At first this was a good thing for Islamic leaders
(more trade = more money)
- Islamic leaders lose control of trade,
* Muslim economies lose ground
- Muslim military had been innovative and formidable
- Once the economy begins to decline so does the technological innovations in military
*Ex: 2015 US military expenses - $756 billion
- $12 Billion in research and development (whitehouse.gov)
* Europe closed to the outside world
- suspicious wanting nothing with outside contact.
* Islamic world, center of openness and innovation
- Encouraged learning and science
- Open to new ideas
* Islamic world
- Becoming ignorant to the outside world.
Europe and Middle East Flip
- Cultural Flip 13th-16th Century -
Decline of the Safavid Empire
Decline of the Mughal Empire
Began picking shahs not on ability.
- Killing most competent sons (afraid of them)
- String of bad rulers until collapse in 1747
- Constant war in late 1600s
- Resources drained = weak empire.
- Europeans weaken trade
Middle East Geography
Was segmented British protectorate of Transjordan after WWI.
Gained independence in 1948 and has been monarchy ever since.
Current ruler King Abdullah.
A neutral player who has balanced good relations with US and most other world powers.
Fought wars against Israel and lost West Bank to country in 1967.
- Signed peace agreement with them in 1994.
One of smallest economies in middle east – lacks adequate oil, water, and other natural resources. Has had more than 620,000 Syrian refugees.
GDP per capita $12,000.
Most people work in service industries or heavy industry like cement manufacture, fertilizer, chemical production.
Farming mostly citrus, olives, cucumber, tomato.
Country exist since 1948-49.
Nation of immigrants and holocaust survivors.
Nation comes into being after WWII due to huge influx of immigrants.
Builds prosperous free democracy in relatively short time and then fights series of wars with neighbors for existence.
Currently controls areas where muslim arab peoples called Palestinians live, which is source of continual violence and problems.
Islamic Empires existed during 15-1600s in Middle East and Southern Asia.
What countries are in the region today?
Historically what were they like and how have they helped shape the world we know today?
Region of Arabian peninsula, includes
Traditionally called the Hejaz.
Birthplace of Islam, contains holy cities of Mecca and Medina.
Mostly desert environment called the Rub al Khali - "The Empty Quarter"
Traditionally nomadic warrior people, camel merchants.
During WWI British made deal with Arab leaders in the Hejaz for independence in exchange for revolting against Ottomans.
After WWI, Al Saud family seizes control of newly independent area.
-Still remains very strict monarchy where ruling family controls everything. Supports Wahhabism, a radical branch of islam.
Discovery of oil makes it extremely wealthy and allows it to purchase weapons from countries like the US.
Largest oil exporter in world.
Traditionally trading hub for Indian ocean trade.
Never a colony of a foreign power but had a good relationship with Britain leading to foreign investment.
Still a monarchy ruled by a Sultan
- Have gradually been expanding political freedoms since Arab spring movements of 2011.
Heavily reliant on oil for economy but trying to diversify economy by 2020 as oil wells running dry. GDP per capita $40,000
Was series of small independent Sheikdoms that decided to join together in 1970s.
Unique government structure: each emirate ruled by a monarch but democratic on national level.
GDP per capita $44k though in Dubai especially huge wealth disparity between citizens/foreigners and migrant laborers. Used British investment and scant oil wealth to establish infrastructure and security forces.
Largest traditional industry pearl diving.
Monarchy ruled by an Amir with huge oil and gas wealth.
Richest country per capita on earth
Govt. provides significant social services and programs for citizens.
Is seen as moderator in region though has funded sides in conflicts like Syria and Libya.
Govt founded news service Al Jazeera now huge international media conglomerate.
Amir peacefully transferred power to son in 2013.
Is hosting world cup in 2022.
Did not have arab spring uprisings.
Population of 1.3 million on small islands.
Over 55% of population immigrants, mostly from Asia.
Had oil reserves running dry, diversifying into transshipping and processing oil and aluminum.
High GDP per capita.
Major unrest- ruled by Sunni family but Shiite majority.
Oil rich autocratic govt ruled by Amir.
Invaded by Iraq in 1990 sparking Persian Gulf War.
Huge foreign population with only 37% considered Kuwaiti. Over 1/3 asian laborers. 17% Christian.
Has not diversified economy.
GDP per capita 71,000$.
Boundaries defined by British following WWI for resource reasons.
Lumped together 3 major groups:
Gains independence in 1930 and overthrown by Baath party in 1960s.
Ruled by Saddam Hussein, a Sunni, from 1979-2003.
Since creation of democratic system has been plagued by infighting between 3 groups.
Theocratic state created in 1979 revolution.
- Rulers in govt are typically religious leaders.
Known as Persia before 1935 and Persian people still main ethnic group.
- Distinctly different from Arabs.
- Speak Farsi
- Young growing population.
- Overall population above 81 million.
Economy very reliant on oil and gas.
Recent sanctions in place on exports of these due to nuclear program though being lifted partially due to nuclear deal.
Economy down 6% in 2012 because of these.
Significant brain drain of educated Iranians to other nations.
$17,000 GDP per capita.
Multiethnic country of 32 million.
Official languages are pasto and a Afghan version of Persian called Dari.
Knew nothing but war from 1973 – 2001.
Resurgent of Taliban major issue and opium production.
GDP per capita is $1,900.
- Most people either farm or take part in small scale industry in things like soap making, brick making, fertilizer production.
Created by French after WWI.
Lumped together very diverse region of peoples including large Shiite (alawite), Sunni, Kurd and Christian populations. Ruled by Assad family and Baath party from 1960s to present. Current civil war starts off as Arab spring protest calling for democracy. Violently put down by govt then turns into Sunni, Shiite conflict. Al Qaeda and later ISIS able to emerge in power vacuum. War has killed 220,000 and displaced up to 10 million out of total population of 17 million.
Historic center of regional trade and finance around Beruit.
Created by French after WWI.
Extremely diverse: 6 million people.
- 40% Christian,
- 27% Sunni,
- 27% Shiite.
Civil war from 1975-1990 between groups.
Invaded and occupied by Israel from 1980s to 2000.
Syria also occupied parts of country from 1976-2005. Hezbollah Shiite militant group funded by Iran is defacto govt in south of country.
GDP per capita 18,000$.
Concern currently is ISIS and use of Hezbollah fighters next door in Syria.
Founded after breakup of Ottoman Empire.
Member of NATO since 1952.
Has tried to get entry to EU but probably won’t.
Had history of military overthrows until recent decades.
GDP per capita $19,000.
Population of 79 million.
Problem with Kurd population in southeast. Major immigration issues to Europe and occupation of northern Cyprus since 1970s.
Read p. 102-107 in textbook. Answer the following:
Describe achievements of the Ming Dynasty.
Explain why and how China isolates itself during the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
Poorest country in the Arab world.
Was part of Ottoman Empire early on but gained independence in 1500s.
At one time had complete monopoly on world’s coffee until Europeans smuggled some out.
Due to that and location grew fairly wealthy through trade.
Historically a tribal society with good warriors. Was partially British colony and after independence formed 2 independent states.
- Later merged but continual repeated civil wars between northern and southern tribes.
Current ongoing civil war between Shiite rebels called Houthis and supporters of former dictator who was chased from power, Al Qaeda, and newly established government supported by international community.