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Domestic Violence against Women

Historical Analysis Presentation-Group 8

Katharine Wolfe

on 22 September 2014

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Transcript of Domestic Violence against Women

Early Origins
Massachusetts 1641
Importance of 1970s
Why change is needed
Social Justice
Laws Protecting Women
Case Study: Ray Rice
Social Work Practices and DV
Often first point of contact for victims of abuse.
Involved in developing strategies to improve quality of education, prevention, screening, and intervention.
Assessments are comprehensive.
Advocate to ensure appropriate follow-up services.
Intervene at a number of locations.
Identify and provide intervention for number of related psychological issues.
Provide number of outside services.
Brenner, H. (2013). Transcending the criminal law's "one size fits all" response to domestic violence. William and Mary Journal of Women and the Law, 19(2)
Davis, R. C., Smith, B., (1995). Domestic violence reforms: Empty promises or fulfilled expectations. DOI: 10.1177/0011128795041004010
Domestic Violence Statistics [Fact sheet]. (n.d.). Retrieved September 18, 2014, from IRIS: Domestic Violence Center website: http://www.stopdv.org/index.php/statistics/
Educational attainment by sex, 1910-2010 [Fact sheet]. (2007). Retrieved September 19, 2014, from http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0779809.html
Enge,Kerilynn. (2013, October 24). Equal under the law: married women’s property act in the United Kingdom. Retrieved September 18, 2014, from http://womenshistory.answers.com/laws
Erez, Edna. (2002). Domestic violence and the criminal justice system: an overview. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Retrieved September 18, 2014, from http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume72002/No1Jan2002/DomesticViolenceandCriminalJustice.html
Gil, K. (n.d.). Milestones in politics for American women. Retrieved September 19, 2014, from http://uspolitics.about.com/od/usgovernment/a/women_milestone.htm
History of Battered Women’s Movement. (2009, March 25). A project of the California Department of Health Services, Maternal and Child Health Branch, Domestic Violence Section, and Interface Children Family Services. Retrieved September 18, 2014, from http://www.icadvinc.org/what-is-domestic-violence/history-of-battered-womens-movement/
Office of Women’s Health. (2012, July 16). Violence against women: laws on violence against women. Retrieved on September 19, 2014, from http://womenshealth.gov/violence-against-women/laws-on-violence-against-women/
Pennington, B., & Eder, S. (2014, September 19). In domestic violence cases, N.F.L. has a history of lenience. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/20/sports/football/in-domestic-violence-cases-nfl-has-a-history-of-lenience.html?_r=0
Tomaszewki, E. (2002). Social work summit on violence against women. Equity: Practice Update from the National Association of Social Workers, 1(1).
Ward, N., (1641). The Massachusetts body of liberties. Retrieved from; http://history.hanover.edu/texts/masslib.html

Domestic Violence against Women
Needed Policy Changes
1) Awareness & Education
2) Prevention & Intervention
3) Screening/Assessments
4)Public and Social Work Policy
Awareness and Education
Prevention and Intervention
Public and Social Work Policy
Early Origins
Massachusetts 1641
Importance of the 1970s
Why change is needed
2-4 mil women abused each year
Leading cause of injury to women 15-44
50% of homeless women and children due to domestic violence
40-60% of men who abuse women also abuse children
Source: Domestic Violence Statistics, n.d.
Early 1970s "Family Crisis Model"
Funded by Gov't
Based on research
Police and social workers work together through crisis intervention
Late 1970s "Presumptive Arrest Policies"
Police treat DV like other types of assault
Research found arresting was more effective than mediation or separation
Source: Davis & Smith, 1995
First DV law enacted:
Body of Liberties
Mass. general court
Outline protection of individual rights in colonies
Liberty #80 "every married women shall be free from bodily correction or stripes by her husband"
Source: Ward, 1641
English Common Law:
1500s permits wife beating for correctional purposes
"Golden age of the Rod"-violence used to teach obedience to men
Private vs. Public
DV was looked at as a private matter (no gov't involvement)
DV cases treated differently from violent cases by prosecution and law enforcement
source: Brenner, 2013
Social Justice
Human Relationships
Inherent worth and dignity of all
Husband has rights to discipline wife (753 B.C)
No such thing as "martial rape" (1500s)
Spousal abuse is illegal (1700s)-
"Rule of Thumb"
Women allowed to leave when abused (1800s)
However was allowed if not visible
No abuse allowed under any circumstances (late 1800s)
Equality of opportunity, services and decision making
Upon marriage, woman is covered by husband (Doctrine of Coverture)
Women can control/own property after marriage (Married Women's Property Act 1870)
But vauge
Married Women's Property Act 1880 closes loopholes
Strengthen relationships to enhance well-being
Shelters are opened and men are prosecuted (1960s)
MN first state to draft bill against DV (1977) and penalties (1979)
Non-Intervention approach-Private matter until 1970s
Mediation approach-provide crisis interventions
Arrest approach-reactive response to DV
"Dual arrest policy"-charges and counter charges
Increase in women arrests
Much throughout history, abuse was thought of as normal part of relationships
Laws Protecting Women
Violene Against Women Act/VAWA (1994)
Family Violence Prevention and Service Act (FVPSA)
Formula Grants
National Domestic Violence Hotline
Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances/DELTA
Victims of Crime Act (VOCA)
Source: Office of Women's Health, 2012
source: "History of battered women's movement", 2009
source: Engel, 2013
sources: Erez, E, 2002; & "History of battered women's movement", 2009
In modern-day, DV is viewed with outrage and disgust.

Following Ray Rice incident, media coverage was universally negative towards Rice and DV. However, the
victim-blaming culture
is still extremely apparent amongst social media.
Majority of comments:
"I don't know what to say, first time I seen this. SAD."
Victim-blaming culture:
"That's the best and most effective way to shut a worthless disrespectful bitch up and remind her who's the boss in two seconds flat. Trying to make sense out of a discussion or anything else for that matter will never work."
NFL Personal Conduct Policy
Received tremendous attention and highly criticized for inadequate response and punishment of players committing DV.
Many other players under investigation for DV.
NFL increased the minimum suspension for first-time DV offenses to 6 games.
sources: Pennington, B. & Eder, S., 2014 and youtube.com
Promote Population
National Domestic Violence Hotline
Sexual Assault Hotline
Training and established protocol for law enforcement
Law Enforcement has authority to arrest abuser without a warrant
Establishment of Victim/Witness Programs
Inhibit Population
Lack of funding
Insufficient staff and lack of beds
Lack of community coordinate responses
Law enforcement slow to respond
Lack of offender accountability
Lack of victime compensation
DV designated as a pre-existing condition
Lack of gun laws for offenders
Definition of "relationship"
Sources: Tomaszewki, 2002
Increase visibility in policy-making
Include education on DV for CEUs for licensure
Integrate DV in core curriculum for students
Additional education for child welfare workers
Increase field placements in area of DV
Facilitate research addressing DV
Expand research efforts to better define which interventions are effective
Ensure culturally competent practice of efforts
Standardize definitions
Connect prevention efforts to provide a strategic social change
Improve efforts on evaluation and research
Include focus on children
Address substance abuse
Prevention and intervention beyond individual
Promote biopsychosocial knowledge
Evaluate and adapt screening/assessment tools
Ensure agencies have appropriate follow-up services
Implement "Do No Harm" by identify how assessment information will be used

Support policy/laws that focus on empowerment
Educate about link between youth development and early intervention of DV
Bring disciplines together
Address unique needs of different group
Ensure involvement when policies are being developed
Cross training for direct line staff and DV shelters
Support policy that looks at DV as public health issue
Support funding for VAWA
The role of women has drastically changed in the past century
Equality in pay and job positions
Still portrayed as objects of desire for men
Women are given the right to vote (1920)
Since 1789, only 2 percent of members of Congress have been women.
Women's high school completion has raised from 26.4% (1940) to 90.2% (2010)
source: Gill, n.d.; Educational attainment by sex, 2007
Group 8: Becky Shaw, Michelle Shimizu,Amanda Shore, Nichole Spring, and Katharine Wolfe
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