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Johann Sebastian Bach

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helen meng

on 16 December 2016

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Transcript of Johann Sebastian Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach
The Life and Music of
Bach's Major Life Events and Contributions
"Music is an agreeable harmony for the honor of God and the permissible delights of the soul."
J.S.Bach
The Bach family produced many successful musicians and the best-known member is Johann Sebastian Bach.
born in Eisenach, Germany (
A Music History Overview
)
music was the family profession for five generations (
A Music History Overview)
orphaned at age ten (
A Music History Overview)
musical training continued by oldest brother, J.C.Bach
(A Music History Overview)
Early Career (1703~1708) in Arstadt, Mulhausen
Life and Musical Career
Family Background and Education
Figure 5
: J.C.Bach, from Google image
Held various positions such as court violinist, chamber musician, and organist (
A Music History Overview).
Married Maria Barbara Bach, their children, C.P.E.Bach and W.F.Bach also became successful musicians (
A Music History Overview).
Life in Weimar (1708~1717)
became court organist and chamber musician to the Duke of Weimar (
A Music History Overview)
composed lots of sacred music for Lutheran church services (
A Music History Overview).
his personal faith was his major inspiration; he dedicated most of his works to the glory of god (
A Music History Overview).
Life in Cothen (1717~1723)
Life in Leipzig (1723~1750)
appointed Cantor of St. Thomas School (
A Music History Overview).
held many responsibilities such as teaching, composing, directing, and supervising musical activities in several churches (
A Music History Overview).
Became the director of Collegiumm Musicum, a performing ensemble for university students 9
A Music History Overview).
Important large-scale works written in this period include
Goldberg Variations
and
Art of Fugue (A Music History Overview)
Died in July 28, 1750 9 (
A Music History Overview)
Kapellmeister to Prince Leopold of Cothen (
A Music History Overview).
many solo and chamber works composed during this period including a solo keybard work
The Well-Tempered Clavier (A Music History Overview).
Bach's Major Musical Works
Notebook for Anna
Magdalena

Notebook for Wilhelm Friedemann
The Well-Tempered Clavier Italian Convertos
Six Brandenbug Concertos

St. Mattew Passion
St. John Passion
Mass in B minor
"He possessed the most profound knowledge of all contrapuntal arts, understood how to make art subservient to beauty."

C.P.E. Bach, on his father's music
Influence of Other Artists
Girolamo Frescobaldi
Influenced the themes of Bach's early prelude choral for organs.
A musician from Ferrara, one of the most important composers of keyboard music in the late Renaissance and early Baroque periods (Morgante).
George Phillip Telemann
Had significant influence on Bach's concertos. Bach's BWV 985 keyboard concerto is an arrangement of a Telemann violin concerto.
A German Baroque composer and multi-instrumentalist (Bergmann).
Giovanni Battista
An Italian painter and print maker from the Republic of Venice (Baroque Composers and Musicians). His
Stabat Mater
served as a basis for Bach's cantata Tilge, Höchster, meine Sünden
The
Stabat Mater
is a 13th-century Catholic hymn to Mary, which portrays her suffering as Jesus Christ's mother during his crucifixion (
Stabat Mater dolorosa At the Cross Her Station Keeping
).
Keyboard Works
Vocal Works
Orchestral Work
Listening Log#1
When was the work composed?
Why was the work composed?
Where was it first performed?
A brief analysis of the elements of music
Personal feelings
The Well-Tempered Claview,
Book One, Prelude and Fugue No.21 in B flat Major
The Well Tempered Clavier
is a collection of 48 preludes and fugues, composed from 1722 to 1742 (A Music History Overview).
Listening Log#2
When was the work composed?
Why was the work composed?
Where was it first performed?
A brief analysis of the elements of music
Personal feelings
Listening Log#3
When was the work composed?
Why was the work composed?
Where was it first performed?
A brief analysis of the elements of music
Personal feelings
The Goldberg variations
is a series of keyboard work. Bach composed this to show what was possible at keyboard in terms of technical and compositional development.


Listening Log#4
When was the work composed?
Why was the work composed?
Where was it first performed?
A brief analysis of the elements of music
Personal feelings
Listening Log#5
When was the work composed?
Why was the work composed?
Where was it first performed?
A brief analysis of the elements of music
Personal feelings
Mass in B minor
It was composed to apply and demonstrate the newly invented tuning system for keyboard instruments known as the twelve tune method (A Music History Overview).
In Kothen, Germany
an improvisatory style
fast tempo
marked by running thirty-second note
many arpeggiated chords
The prelude
The fugue
highly structured
a imitative contrapuntal composition
has a recurring theme throughout
Cantata No. 80, "A Mightly Fortress is our God"
Bach wrote this cantata for the Feast of the Reformation in Leipzig, celebrated annually on October 31 (Moon).
It was first performed in Leipzig, Germany (Moon).
It was composed during Bach's appoint in Leipzig, around the years of 1723 to 1750 (
A Music History Overview
).
ascending and descending notes
repeated notes in the beginning
each instrument has a medium size range
Melody
Rhythm
4/4 meter
fast tempo
slows down towards the middle, after the middle and again towards the end
Texture
polyphony
Goldberg Variation No.5
Published in 1741, composed around 1720s (Keyboard Works:
Goldberg Variation
).
In Leipzig, Germany
fast tempo, in 3/4 meter
include hand-crossing technique with one hand constantly moving back and forth
rapid melodic lines in mostly sixteenth notes
the main melody is accompanied by another melody with longer note values and wide peaps
Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D major, BWV 1050
Around 1720s.
In Kothen, Germany
played by chamber music ensemble (including flute, harpsichord and violin)
has three movements: Allegro, Affettuoso in B minor and back to Allegro
include a lengthy, virtuosic solo in the first movement
solo materials are given to the harpsichord, which should be part of the continuo (the larger orchestra)
free-flowing harpsichord line
the second movement is for soloists only and is briefer than the first
the final movement is a charming dance, a lively gigue with fugal powers
It is believed to show off a new harpsichord by Michael Mietke which Bach had brought back from Berlin for the Köthen court. It is also thought that Bach wrote it for a competition at Dresden (Schuwarm).
Completed in 1749
(
A Music History Overview
).
Bach wanted to dedicate this work to the new sovereign Augustus III, a Catholic, hoping of obtaining the title "Electoral Saxon Court Composer” (Bach: Mass in B minor).
In Leipzig, Germany
Polyphonic in texture
In binary form
Opening measures show a rising scale on the strong beats
The first flutes and aboes state the thematic material for the entire piece
The variations of the fugal subject make use of the chromatic climb and the neighbour note motive from the subject


Bach was one of the few musicians that are trained in instrument building and repair. He has revised and discovered many possibilities of harpsichord and organ.(
A Music History Overview)
The beginning is very sweet and light
I feel excited and activated because the tempo is very fast
When the tempo slowed down, I feel like I am dreaming
When the melody sped up again and changed back a major key, I feel like waking up in the morning
very solemn and grand
I can feel that this is a Baroque piece because it sounds very organized and clear
It sounds like a sacred work delicate to the gods
Super rhythmic
Joyful
Sounds like a fast dance music
It makes me move with the tempo
Very fast and light at the beginning and lyrical in the middle
I really like the sound of the harpsichord, it somehow sounds like a electric instrument I think it is very cool
It sounds very solemn and sad
Like mourning
Makes me sleepy
The End
Bibliography
Exploration 1: a music history overview by RCM Examination
Girolamo Frescobaldi (Composer) - Short Biography." Girolamo Frescobaldi (Composer) - Short Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2016.





"
Music History Is Thrilling!" Music History Is Thrilling Baroque Cantata and Johann Sebastian Bach Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2016.


"Dave's J.S. Bach Works Catalog - Keyboard Works - The Goldberg Variations." Dave's J.S. Bach Works Catalog - Keyboard Works - The Goldberg Variations. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2016.
Figure 4
: Eisenach Germany, from Google image
Figure 6
: Arstadt, Mulhausen from Google image
Figure 7
: Weimar, from Google image
Figure 8
: an organ, from Google image
Figure 9
: Cothen Germany, from Google image
Figure 10:
Well-Tempered Clavier by Bach, from Google image
Figure 11:
Leipzig Germany, from Google image
Figure 12
: St. Thomas School, from Google image
Figure 13:
Collegiumm Musicum, from Google image
Figure 14: Goldberg Variations
by Bach, from Google image
Figure 15
:
Art of Fugue
by Bach, from Google image
Figure 19
: Girolamo Frescobaldi, from Google image
Figure 20
: George Phillip Telemann, from Google image
Figure 21: Stabat Mater

by Giovanni Battista, from Google image
Figure 22
: Giovanni Battista, from Google image
Figure 23: Kothen Germany, from Google image
Figure 24
: Leipzig Germany, from Google image
Figure 26
: Kothen Germany, from Google image
Figure 27: Leipzig Germany, from Google image)
"Brandenburg No. 5." Brandenburg No. 5. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2016.
"Brandenburg Concertos." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2016.
"BACH Mass in B Minor BWV 232." BACH Mass in B Minor BWV 232. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2016.

"The Epic and the Intimate: Binary Form in "Kyrie I" of Bach's B-Minor Mass." The Epic and the Intimate: Binary Form in "Kyrie I" of Bach's B-Minor Mass. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2016.
"Which Composers Influenced Bach?" Which Composers Influenced Bach? - Quora. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2016.
"Bach's Enduring Enigma: An Introduction To The 'Goldberg Variations'" NPR. NPR, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2016.
Figure 1
: J.S. Bach, from Google image

Figure 2
: a tree, from Google image
Figure 3
: family, from Google image
Figure 16
: keyboard, from Google image
Figure 17
: choir, from Google image
Figure 18
: Orchestra, from Google image
Figure 25
: Leipzig Germany, from Google image
Full transcript