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Transcript of Karl Marx
Das Kapital (capitalism and communism)
Communist Manifesto (theory of class struggle and stages of history)
March 14, 1883, in his study alone
He never recovered from his wife's death in 1881 and his oldest daughter's in 1882
Developed a catarrh, which caused bronchitis and pleurisy
Before he died, his financial standing did improve because of support from his friend Engels
Buried in London's Highgate Cemetery
By: Sarah Franklin
Born May 5, 1818, in Trier, Germany (Prussian Rhineland)
Lived in a comfortable middle-class family
3rd of nine children: Sophie, Mauritz, Eduard, Hermann, Henriette, Louise, Emilie and Caroline
Had no major health issues growing up
Early Biographical Info
Little is known of his childhood, but it is said he was home schooled until he was 12 when he entered into Friedrich Wilhelm Gymnasium. It was a Jesuit high school where he studied for five years, graduating in 1835 at seventeen years old.
Father- Heinrich Marx (Herschel Mordechai) He practiced law, and due to this had to convert from Judaism to Lutheranism in 1817 because of a law banning Jews from high society. He was a huge influence on Karl for his passion for learning and activism for reform.
Mother- Henrietta Marx (Pressburg) She was a jewish Dutchwoman who didn't have a close relationship with Karl. She centered her life around family and housework. She kept her faith but eventually converted in 1825.
Both of his parents were descendants from a long line of rabbis. His paternal grandfather, Meier Halevi Marx, was Trier's rabbi, while his maternal one was a dutch rabbi. His paternal line owned vineyards.
Marx grew up in a non-religious home, though there were Jewish influences and he was baptized into Lutheranism at the age of 6 in 1824. Later in his life he became an atheist and materialist.
Marx married his childhood friend and sweetheart, Jenny von Westphalen in 1843
She was engaged to an aristocrat but broke it off for Marx
Their marriage was socially controversial because Jenny was in a higher, wealthy class than Marx
With his wife, Jenny, he had seven children. Four of which died early in life.
Jenny, Laura, and Eleanor were the three surviving daughters, all of whom he treasured deeply.
Two married Frenchmen, and Eleanor was active in the organization of British labor
October 1835, enrolled at Bonn University to study law per his fathers orders, though he was interested in philosophy and literature
He lived college life to the fullest where he partied, accumulated debts, participated in a duel, and got arrested for impairment and disturbance of peace
He only attended Bonn University for 2 semesters when his father found out about his deteriorating grades and transferred him
The next school year, Marx transferred to the more serious and academically compelling University of Berlin; where he studied law and philosophy
Here he was introduced to the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel and joined the Doctor's Club to discuss Hegel's ideas
Eventually, he became involved with a radical thinkers group, the Young Hegelians, in 1837
They criticized the political and societal establishments of their time
Marx spent more than four years in Berlin finishing his studies and writing his doctoral thesis, "The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature"
Since the University of Berlin was conservative, he obtained his doctorate through the University of Jena in 1841
Work Role- Marx didn't actually work, but rather studied and developed his economic and political philosophy's. He was financially supported by Engels
Relationships- Communist Correspondence Committee; the Communist League
Influences- "The overthrow of the bourgeoisie, the domination of the proletariat, the abolition of the old bourgeois society based on class antagonisms, and the establishment of a new society without classes and without private property"
Work Role- Writer for daily newspaper, Neue Rheinische Zeitung
Relationships- Committee of Public Safety
Influences-Wanted to inspire the working class to start a revolution or at least the atmosphere like in Paris
Marx was again expelled from the country
Work Role- Headquarters of the Communist League moved to London, and in 1849- 50 there was a split due to some wanting an immediate uprising creating a revolution for the working class; New York Daily Tribune( withdrew in 1863)
Relationships- German Workers' Educational Society; Charles Dana (main contact); First International
Influences- Believed that the working class should wait and support the bourgeoisie revolution against feudal aristocracy and for governmental reform, and then start their revolution
Work Role- Editor/ journalist of the radical newspaper, Rheinische Zeitung
Relationships- Cologne Circle; Moses Hess (radical socialist)
Influences- Expressed his views on socialism and economics
Fled due to the Prussian authorities banning the newspaper and in fear of being arrested.
Work Role- Co-editor of radical leftist newspaper, the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher; Writer for German radical newspaper, Vorwärts!
Relationships- Arnold Ruge (German socialist philosopher); Friedrich Engels (lifelong friend)
Influences- Refined his views on socialism with Hegelian and Feuerbachian ideas of dialectical materialism, while criticizing liberals; convinced working class would be the agent and instrument of the final revolution in history; abandoned Feuerbachian materialism
The Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher was banned after its first issue and the relationship between Marx and Ruge fell apart with their contrasting ideas on capitalism.
Marxism and historical materialism
Deported from France due to Prussian pressures on the French government.
He was forced to flee to Paris when the Belgian Ministry of Justice accused him of aiding firearms to protesting Belgian workers.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's philosophy;
the classical political economy (economics) of Adam Smith and David Ricardo;
French socialist thought, in particular the thought of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Henri de Saint-Simon, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, and Charles Fourier;
earlier German philosophical materialism, particularly that of Ludwig Feuerbach;
the working class analysis by Friedrich Engels.
Marxism and birth to modern sociology.
Lasting impressions in economics, philosophy, etc.
Social science (testable theories)
Ideas of capitalism to communism (classless society)
The economic system at any given time determines the current ideas in relation to history keeping up to changing stages
Father of conflict theory
Scorpion and Felix
Capital, Volume I
The Civil War in France
The Civil War in the United States
A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy
Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right
Critique of the Gotha Program
The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844
The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon
Marx's notebooks on the history of technology
Mathematical manuscripts of Karl Marx
Notes on James Mill
On the Jewish Question
The Philosophical Manifesto of the Historical School of Law
The Poverty of Philosophy
Theories of Surplus Value
Theses on Feuerbach
Wage Labour and Capital
The Communist Manifesto
1. Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes.
2. A heavy progressive or graduated income tax.
3. Abolition of all right of inheritance.
4. Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels.
5. Centralization of credit in the hands of the state, by means of a national bank with state capital and an exclusive monopoly.
6. Centralization of the means of communication and transport in the hands of the state.
7. Extension of factories and instruments of production owned by the state; the bringing into cultivation of wastelands, and the improvement of the soil generally in accordance with a common plan.
8. Equal liability of all to labor. Establishment of industrial armies, especially for agriculture.
9. Combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries; gradual abolition of the distinction between town and country, by a more equable distribution of the population over the country.
10. Free education for all children in public schools. Abolition of children's factory labor in its present form. Combination of education with industrial production, etc., etc