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Biology STAAR Review

Review of Readiness Standards

Donna Sue Perkins

on 7 July 2017

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Transcript of Biology STAAR Review







Cell Structure and Function
Cellular Processes
Cell Cycle
Mechanisms of Genetics
Biological Evolution & Classification
Biological Processes & Systems
Interdependence within Environmental Systems
Nucleic Acid
Mutations of DNA
Predicting Genetic Crosses
Evidence of Common Ancestry
Natural Selection
Classification Systems
Systems Interactions in Animals
Systems Interactions in Plants
Function: Regulation
Function:Nutrient Absorption
Function: Reproduction
Function: Defense
Function: Transport
Function: Reproduction
Function: Response
Ecological Succession:
Change Population & Species Diversity
Organism Interactions
Flow of Matter & Energy
Environmental Change Impact
on Environmental Stability
Terrestrial Biomes
Coniferous Forest
Adaptive Radiation
Divergent Evolution
Convergent Evolution
DNA Evidence
Homologous Structures or
Analagous Structures
Donna Sue Perkins
April 2012
Aquatic Biomes
Just like the human body, cells must carry
out specific functions for an organism to
maintain homeostasis.
Cellular Reproduction uses the
nucleus and centrioles.
Transportation of nutrients
occurs through the cell membrane,
endoplasmic reticulum,golgi body
& vacuoles
These functions include: reproduction, transport of nutrients & waste products, production & use of energy and communication.
Production & Use of Energy organelles
includes the
chloroplast & mitochondrion.
Communication Organelles include the
nucleus, ribosome, vesicles and
intra-cellular junctions.
Homeostasis is the maintenance of
an internal balance in the cell or organism.
Positive and negative feedback loops signal
cell organelles to cause changes to maintain
a stable internal environment.
Examples of feedback loops include:

osmotic pressure
calcium ion regulation
blood sugar regulation
The basic virus structure includes a capsid, protein coat, envelope with DNA or RNA.
Viruses reproduce by taking over normal healthy cells and injecting their nucleic acids into the cells.
Biomolecules are organic molecules that are made up of
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sometimes phosphorus.
Proteins are made of chain of amino acids
that can be used to make the proteins that
the body needs to maintain muscles, bones
& other body organs. Proteins control the
structure and metabolism of cells.
Lipids are fats, oils used for energy storage,
cell membrane composition and composition
of vitamins and steroids.
Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. Carbohydrates store energy,
starch in plants and glycogen in animals, add
structure to organism, cellulose in cell wall of plant
and chitin in cell wall of fungi. Carbohydrates also
play a role in nucleic acids by providing the sugar
deoxyribose for DNA and ribose for RNA.
Nucleic Acids include DNA and RNA.
DNA , an organism’s hereditary code,
controls the synthesis of RNA molecules
which work to form proteins. Nucleic
acids are made up of nucleotides
which are composed of a nitrogen base,
phosphate and sugar.
The shape of a virus allows the virus to match the shape of certain receptors sites found in the cell membrane allowing attachment followed by injection of viral nucleic acid.
The cell cycle is divided into three parts:
Interphase, Mitosis, and Cytokinesis.
Interphase is divided into G1, organelles replicate
and cell size increase, S phase, synthesis or
replication of DNA, and G2, re-check DNA
and prepare to divide.
Mitosis is the division of the nucleus and includes:
& Telophase.
Cytokinesis, division of cytoplasm,
follows mitosis. Mitosis creates two
diploid (2N) daughter cells
identical to original cell.
Deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA, is a double helix structure made of a phosphate-sugar backbone held together by phosphodiester bonds.
The genetic code is found between the phosphodiester bonds in the order or sequence of the nitrogen bases.
Nitrogen bases are adenine(A), thymine(T), cytosine(C) and guanine(G). Adenine base pairs with thymine while
cytosine base pairs with guanine by hydrogen bonds.
DNA is composed of many repeating nucleotides. A nucleotide is made of a phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar, and a nitrogen base. All living organisms (animals, plants, fungi, protists and bacteria) have DNA made of the same four nitrogen bases A,T,C and G. Sections of a chromosome, called a gene, codes for the making of a protein (aka polypeptide).
DNA is “unzipped” between nitrogen bases by the breaking of hydrogen bonds. The reading of DNA nitrogen bases occurs during DNA replication
(during S phase of cell cycle before mitosis) and transcription ( the making of messenger RNA)
Changes in the nitrogen base sequence of DNA are called genetic mutations. Genetic disorders are caused by:

point mutations
(single change of nitrogen bases),
insertion mutations
(additions of nitrogen bases),
deletion mutations
(removal of nitrogen bases),
inversion mutations
( backward sequence of nitrogen bases)
translocation mutations
( nitrogen bases moved to another location on the chromosome).
Genetic disorders caused by failure of chromosomal pairs to separate during meiosis are called nondisjunction. Nondisjunction mutations can be detected by creating a karyotype, or picture of an organism’s chromosomes.
Punnett squares are graphic organizers used to predict the outcome of monohybrid and dihybrid crosses. Letters are used to represent alleles or versions of a trait and are called the genotype. Phenotypes are the physical appearance the alleles.
Punnett squares are graphic organizers used to predict the outcome of monohybrid and dihybrid crosses. Letters are used to represent alleles or versions of a trait and are called the genotype. Phenotypes are the physical appearance the alleles.
Mendelian inheritance represents patterns in which a dominant allele masks or hides the phenotype of a recessive allele. Gregor Mendel, father of heredity, developed the Law of Segregation, principle states that the alleles for a trait separate when gametes are formed during meiosis, and the Law of Independent Assortment, alleles for different traits are distributed to sex cells (& offspring) independently of one another.
Non-mendelian inheritance patterns include: co-dominance or the expression of two dominant alleles (ex: human blood type ABO) , incomplete dominance or the phenotype is a blend of two alleles (ex: red flower crossed with white flower creates a pink flower) and sex-linked inheritance or gene expression shown more frequently in males while females are carriers ( ex: color blindness or hemophilia).
Common ancestry is determined by looking at similarities organism’s share among the fossil record, biogeography and the anatomical, molecular and developmental homologies of the organisms.
Fossil records are the preserved remains or impressions found in rock of organisms which lived in the past. The number of fossils and the layering of sediment where fossils are discovered give researcher information about the organisms. Older fossils are located at the bottom while newer fossil are located near the surface.
Biogeography explains the patterns of species distribution in a given location and studies the type and amount of organisms in a location.
Homologies are similar structures between parts of different species and looks at similarities in their anatomical structure or skeletal components, molecular or differences in DNA and amino acid sequence and the developmental stages such as embryology.
Natural selection is a process where changes in a population occur from one generation to the next. These changes cause the organism with adaptations best suited for the environment to survive and pass on their genetic material to their offspring.
Adaptation is a process by which an organism’s structure, coloration or behavior offers an advantage to better survive in a given habitat. Examples of adaptations can be mimicry, symbiotic relationships or behaviors such as migration.
Biodiversity related to the variations among all living organisms. Diversity leads to survival for an organism if environmental changes are extreme. For example, plants tolerant to high salinity levels will survive if estuary forms at the end of a river near the Gulf of Mexico.
Taxonomy is the science of classifying organisms into related groups. The Linnaean system names organism by their Genus and species. Organisms with the same genus name are related & have high number of similarities. Ex: Bull Frog Rana catesbeiana and Wood Frog Rana sylvatica.
The six kingdom system divides organisms
two prokaryotic kingdoms:
(ancient bacteria in harsh environments) and

(true bacteria) and
four eukaryotic kingdoms:

(heterotrophic &moving)

(autotrophic & stationary)
(heterotrophic decomposers) and
(mostly unicellular aquatic organisms with either animal-like, plant-like or fungus-like characteristics).
Levels of Taxonomy: Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus & Species. Domains have the greatest diversity while species level is most specific.
Cladistics is the study of the classification of organisms based on the branchings of descendant lineages from a common ancestor. Phylogeny is the evolutionary development and history of a species or higher taxonomic grouping of organ or the evolutionary development of an organ or other part of an organism.
Human Body Systems can be divided into four functions groups: Regulation, Nutrient Absorption, Reproduction, and Defense.
The functions of regulation include interactions between the endocrine (hormones), excretory (liquid wastes) and Integumentary systems (skin, hair & nails).
The function of nutrient absorption includes interactions between the digestive (breakdown of food), respiratory (exchanges of oxygen & carbon dioxide), cardiovascular systems (aka circulatory system for transport).
Reproduction is directed by the reproductive system (production of gametes), however many other systems and functions in the body need to interact for reproduction to occur successfully such as the nervous (detect & respond to stimuli) and endocrine.
Defenses require interactions by any number of systems, depending on the type of defense that is taking place. Integumentary provide barrier while skeletal system (protection, support, blood formation & mineral storage) produces white blood cells. The thymus gland of the Immune (aka Lymphatic – fight infection) also produces white blood cells. The muscular system (provides movement) offers some protection from injury.
Transport in plants can include the movement of water and nutrients within individual cells, from cell to cell, and the transport of the sap within the xylem and phloem
Transport can include the:
plant roots (absorb water & nutrients),
(conduct water up),
(move food up & down),
(conduct water & nutrients ; support leaves),
(make food with chloroplast by photosynthesis),
or stomata (opening for gas exchange),
guard cells
(control opening & closing of stoma)
Reproduction in plants includes the flower with:
Petals (attract pollinators such as bees, birds, wasps)
Pistil aka carpel (female part of flower divided into stigma, style & ovary)
Stamen (male part of flower divided into anther & filament)
Seeds (created after pollination & fertilization)
Pollen (male gamete produced in the anther of the stamen)
Methods of transport of pollen include animals, wind and water.
Plants respond to the amount of light available (length of day), gravity and temperature.
Ecological succession is the gradual change in the ecosystems over time.
Primary Succession includes beginning with abiotic factors such as rock only. Lichens (algae-fungi symbiotic relationship) chemically weather rock into soils with added physical weathering from climate precipitation. Soils then gradually allow vegetation growth, animal movement into area followed by growth of shrubs and tree until stable ecosystem is attained (climax community).
Secondary succession begins with soil and some biotic conditions until climax community is attained. Disturbances such as: flood, drought, tornado, hurricane or wildfire can disrupt an ecosystem and create an ecological succession.
A population is a single species in an ecosystem while a community is a group of different species interacting within a small environment.
Symbolic Relationships- relationship between living organisms with at least one organism receiving benefits.

Parasitism (
) Commensalism (
) Mutualism (
Community Interactions- relationships between species

Predator-Prey relationships (

Competition (Two organism fighting for the same habitat requirements of: food, water, shelter or space)
Trophic levels - nutrition levels
(producers) - create own energy by photosynthesis (
energy to chemical energy) or chemosynthesis (chemical energy conversion)
Heterotrophs (consumers) -

break down dead or decaying organisms by secreting enzymes

consume dead and decaying matter
The Principles of Ecosystem Stability are:

1. Ecosystems dispose of waste and replenish nutrients by recycling all elements.

2. Ecosystems use sunlight as their source of energy.

3.Ecosystems maintain the size of a consumer population from overgrazing and other forms of overuse do not occur

4. Ecosystems maintain biodiversity.
Factors influencing ecosystem stability are biotic potential and environmental resistance (positive and negative factors of population growth -either abiotic or biotic, species diversity that is highly correlated with stability, as well as climate)

Stability of an ecosystem also needs to have a resistance to change such as:

Inertia - the resistance to change,
Resilience - the ability to recover from change,
Succession - the replacement of species by another.

Secondary ecological succession is the changing sequence of communities from the substitution of a community by a new one in a given place. For example, the ecological succession of the invasion of plants and animals in an abandoned crop or land.
Primary ecological succession is the changing sequence of communities from the first biological occupation of a place where previously there were no living beings. For example, the colonization and the following succession of communities on a bare rock.
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