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Native American History
Transcript of Native American History
Connecticut and Rhode Island
By 19th Century
By 1876 U.S. Government
them to live in reservations.
By 20th Century
Most still live on the reservations
Overview of their Civil Rights
Native American History
Arrival of the Europeans
Nowadays they suffer from institutionalized racism
By 1492 there were almost 300 different languages
From: 12. million
By 16th and 17th Century.
By 18th Century.
By 19th Century.
By 20th Century.
By 16th and 17th Century
Beliefs were “ungodly".
Brutal attacks and invasion.
“Scalp Bounty”: Trophy of Battle
Indian Removal Act
"Trail of Tears."
By 18th Century
Pine Ridge of the Ghost Dance
4,000 Cherokees died
150 Indians were killed
"Many Sioux believed that if they practiced the Ghost Dance and rejected the ways of the white man, the gods would create the world anew and destroy all non-believers, including non-Indians" (History).
Starvation, exposure, and illnesses
The Indian Citizen Act of 1924
Official citizenship to the Native American tribes
Heroic service in World War I.
Low high school completion rates.
Elimination of offensive use of mascots by schools and professional sports teams
Reservations and tribes are not the same.
Not all indians live on reservations
All tribes are not the same
As Europeans arrived, some indians died because of the diseases the Europeans brought.
Settlers started to claim Indian lands for themselves.
At the end of the 1800's the Government made them leave their lands and go to reservations
Susan La Flesche Picotte
Native american were removed from their lands through series of wars and massacres
Native American Wars
The Tuscarora War - 1711 Northern Carolina
Navajo Conflicts 1849-63 Arizona and New Mexico
Sioux Wars- 1854-90 Wyoming, Minnesota and South Dakota
Apache Attacks- 1861-1900 New Mexico, Arizona, Texas and Mexico
Other Relevant Wars in the 19th Century
Battle of Horseshoe Bend- 1814 Georgia and Alabama
First Seminole War- 1816-18 Florida
Second Seminole War- 1835-42 Florida Everglades
Third Seminole War- 1855-58 Florida Everglades
The Powhatan Confederacy - 1622-44 - Virginia
Navajo Conflicts 1849-63
Sioux Wars- 1854-90
Apache Attacks- 1861-1900
The Yamasee War 1715-1718 Southern Carolina
The Powhatan Confederacy
King Philip’s War
The Tuscarora War
Overview of Historical Landmarks
The Yamasee War
Overview of Migration Process
- Jamestown settlers arrived in Virginia with higher expectations
- The primary leader Powhatan
- Confederation of about 30 Algonquian tribes
- In 1614 John Rolfe married Pocahontas
- Opechancanough has control over the confederacy
- Surprise attack on the white settlements
- In the 17th the colonists started to expand westward
- Unfair trading, the sale of alcohol, and destruction of Pequot crops
- In July 1636, John Oldham is killed by the Pequot and leads Gov. John -Endicott to call up the militia.
- In May 1637 the colonist ally with the Mohegan and Narragansett and attacked a Pequot village
- In 1620 the English first settled in New England
Massasoit, sachem of the Wampanoag tribe
- English were convinced that the various tribes should be under colonial control
- Finally, in 1675, the battle was joined
- Metacomet, called Philip by the English, led his tribe into a final struggle.
- In 1676, the battle was over and Philip was killed, his body drawn and quartered.
- In 1710, a group of Germans and Swiss established a settlement on the Neuse River
- Natives became mad because of the invasion of their lands as well as frequent unfair trading practices.
- On September 22, 1711, the Tuscarora under Chief Hancock attacked New Bern
- Hundreds of settlers were killed and their homes and crops destroyed
- In 1713 the settlers regained control- Captain James Moore-Yamasee
- Some Tuscarora were sold into slavery to help defray war costs
- The coming of the Spanish in the late 16th century forced the Yamasee to migrate north
- The continuing influence of white settlers put pressure on Indian agricultural and hunting lands
- The tribe became dependent on English firearms and other manufactured items
- In the spring of 1715, the Yamasee formed a confederation and attacked the white settlements in South Carolina
- Hundreds were killed, homes burned and livestock slaughtered
- The Cherokee chose English weapons over the Yamasee
- In a further stroke of good fortune, the settlers also managed to gain support from Virginia
- In 1851, Fort Defiance was built in Navajo country.
- In 1858, Manuelito, a Navajo chief, discovered 60 head of his livestock shot by U.S. soldiers.
- Later on, soldiers attacked Manuelito’s fields and village.
- The chief then resolved to drive the soldiers off the land and called other Navajo leaders for war.
- In 1860 more than 1,000 Navajos attacked Fort Defiance.
- In 1863 U.S. forces under Kit Carson waged a full-scale campaign against the Navajo
- Carson drove the Navajo from their lands by destroying their means of subsistence
- In 1868, a new treaty was concluded in order for the Navajo to move to their former territory
King Philip’s War - 1675-78 Massachusetts and Rhode Island
- The year 1854 saw the first significant incident in Wyoming- Nineteen U.S. soldiers
- U.S. soldiers took revenge and annihilated approximately 100 Sioux in their Nebraska camp; their chief was taken prisoner.
- In 1862, Chief Little Crow launched an insurrection in Minnesota.
- Red Cloud’s War (1866-1867), concluded with a treaty that guaranteed the Sioux permanent possession of the Black Hills.
- Prospectors and miners looking for gold crowded the territory in the 1870s.
- Sitting Bull refused to comply and move their people to a reservation
- On June 17, 1876, Sioux and Cheyenne took Crook's soldiers
- General George then led a force against the Indians and on June 25, he and his men ran into a Sioux war party and not a single soldier survived.
- The final Sioux rebellion took place in 1890 when General Nelson ordered the apprehension of Sitting Bull
- Then Big Foot took command of the last band of fighting Sioux
- Relations between the six Apache tribes, and white settler decreased
- Manifest Destiny: Apache lands lay open to the relentless American westward movement.
- The U.S. government's policy was to relegate Indians to reservations
- The natives' fierce brought national notoriety to several of the Apache leaders, among them Geronimo, Mangas Coloradas, and Victorio.
- Apache terror ravaged settlements for nearly four decades.
- Leaders headed small parties in hundreds of surprise assaults on white outposts.
- In 1885 approximately a dozen Apache braves fled from a reservation. U.S. soldiers chased them, but they made it to the relative safety of Mexico.
- The government, to destroy the tribes, ordered Soldiers to "kill every Indian man capable of bearing arms and capture the women and children."
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