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Lyle Briggs SEAT Presentation
Transcript of Lyle Briggs SEAT Presentation
Energy Brainstorm: Which form of energy
did you use most so far today? Why Care? Power Plants
and Pollution Not all power plants create the same amount of pollution. Some fuels and some technologies are cleaner than others. Renewable Sources Non-Renewable Sources An energy source that can be replenished in a short period of time An energy source that we are using up and cannot recreate in a short period of time Solar (sun)
Tidal (ocean) Fossil Fuels
Uranium (nuclear) Where Does Our Electricity
Come From? Coal: 11.9% Nuclear: 16.5% Natural Gas: 42.3% Oil: 1.2% Hydroelectric: 17.7% All Other Renewables: 9.5% Schools spend more on energy than computers and text books combined! Schools nationwide spend more than
$8 billion/year on energy Electricity: From Producer to Consumer OATMEAL EXPERIMENT Lighting In order to do work, energy transforms, or converts, from one form to another. Whenever energy is converted, some of the energy is wasted. Mechanical Chemical Heat Electrical What happened?!? In a traditional coal plant only about 30-35% of the energy in the coal ends up as electricity on the other end of the generator. We can’t necessarily improve the efficiency of the GRID, but we can make better use of the energy that reaches us Questions? Educational facilities are some of the most expensive to operate when you compare them to other commercial buildings. Energy Efficiency Using less energy to accomplish the same task, such as heating or lighting a building. The ratio of how much useful work we can get out of any system compared to how much energy goes in. The human body, for example, converts about 5-15% of the chemical energy we consume as food into useful work
Thus, our bodies are 5-15% energy efficient.
Photosynthesis is 5% efficient
Solar energy is 10-35% efficient Energy in
(gasoline) Waste out
(heat) Useful work
(acceleration) Efficiency of an Engine Energy in Waste out Useful work
(playing) 100% 85-95% 5-15% Measuring Energy POWER UNIT: Watts (W) and kilowatts (kW) Instantaneous reading ENERGY UNIT: Watt-hours (Wh) and kilowatt-hours (kWh) Usage over time Most electrical devices have a label that says how many watts they use at any given point OR you can use a watt meter to find the watts Kilowatt-hours (kWh) are the unit your power company uses to charge for electricity. Using the wattage, we can calculate how many kW the device uses and then how much energy in kWh it will use over time. Annual electricity cost per building type Efficiency of the human body To figure kilowatt hours: 1. Find wattage of the device
2. Divide by 1000 to get kilowatts
3. Estimate how much time the device is used
4. Multiply hours of use by kilowatts (kW) to determine kilowatt-hours (kWh) The power company bills you in cents per kilowatt-hour How many cents do you think your school pays per kWh? Average of 20 cents/kWh
$0.20/kWh For example, a device requiring one watt of power to run will use one watt-hour (Wh) during one hour…and 1 kilowatt-hour (kWh) over a thousand hours. How much money do you think this school spends on electricity each month? $6,295/month Light Bulb Experiment How much $ can one bulb save? How much Carbon Dioxide can one bulb save? Carbon dioxide emitted by burning fossil fuels = largest contributor to global warming
CO2 = 0.683 lbs/kWh
CO2 = 1.329 lbs/kWh Which bulb is the most efficient at producing light? How do you know?
They do the same JOB – about the same light output
CFL does it using LESS energy
The "cool" CFL bulb does not produce as much heat The “expensive” bulb is really much cheaper when you factor in energy costs Using less energy also means less CO2 emissions What is an energy audit? Provides a “snapshot” of how energy is currently being used in the facility. Identify cost ($) and energy savings! YOU can save energy at home AND school by
learning to do an energy audit. You will be doing some of the same activities that are done in a full audit:
1. Data Gathering & Analysis
2. Energy Plan: Recommendations for Changes and
3. Project Report BRAINSTORM:
What things in school use the MOST energy? Often a large portion of electricity use (~30%) and one of the most controllable The cost of ENERGY represents about 90% of the cost of light over the life of a lamp.
(As we learned in the light bulb experiment) Lighting Factors to Consider Light level requirements vs. current level Type of lighting technology Ballast type The release of greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels to generate electricity is the NUMBER 1 contributor to climate change. Every task has an associated recommended lighting level Illuminance is measured in footcandles (fc) Footcandle = the light from one candle held one foot away Illuminance = how much a light source illuminates an area Factors That Determine Appropriate Light Levels Type of activity Age of occupants Length of time at task Contrast / Surroundings Expert recommendations/ standards User expectations/ existing lighting they’re accustomed to Light Meter Shows how much light is in an area Measures the illuminance
of a given area or work surface in footcandles Take light meter readings in representative areas of the room and average For task-specific lighting needs, measure on the surface where you need light Screw-In Light Bulbs With incandescent bulbs, up to 90% of electricity is wasted as heat instead of light Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) Very efficient, long lasting lighting technology Commonly used in illuminated exit signs, digital displays, traffic signals, holiday decorative lights Still expensive and not common in overhead lighting applications Can signal “phantom loads” – more on that later Fluorescent Tube Lamps Many different types and sizes Can be “U” shaped, circular, or straight Often used in overhead fixtures in schools, stores, offices, and industrial plants. Tube-shaped fluorescents
come in different lengths and diameters. T5s and T8s can be used to replace T12s and save energy. Number refers to 8ths of an inch
T12 = 1.5” diameter
T8 = 1” diameter
T5 = 5/8” diameter High-Intensity Discharge Lamps (HIDs) Used mainly for street lighting or industrial uses, common in gymnasiums Use a specific ballast so not easily replaced by a different bulb type What are ballasts? Ballasts help these lamps start up, and regulate light output by maintaining normal operating current and voltage Ballasts consume some energy – typically about 10% of the total used by the fixture There are two main types of ballasts for fluorescent tubes: Magnetic and Electronic Tests fluorescent lights to determine whether they have magnetic or electronic ballasts. Detects “flicker” in lights
Checker pattern = magnetic
Smooth circles = electronic Lighting Levels Worksheet Find if the room is over lit,
i.e. can we eliminate bulbs or replace bulbs with more energy efficient ones?
What behavior changes would help save energy in this room?
Calculate cost of lighting in room
Determine ballast type Lighting
Recommendations Turn off lights Set timers Improve/reduce light levels Delamp (remove lamps from fixtures) Use daylighting and turn off lights Use bulbs with more appropriate (less) wattage Clean or replace dirty or warped fixture covers Switch to more efficient lighting Swap incandescents for CFLs Suggest T8s for T12s Upgrade ballasts from magnetic to electronic Behavior One of the easiest ways to save energy is to REDUCE the amount of electricity we use CONSERVE! Some simple energy behavior rules Turn it OFF Turn it DOWN Take it OUT UNPLUG it Use DAYLIGHT The US Department of Energy reports that simply raising awareness at a school about saving energy can save between 1 - 3% – without spending any money on efficient new equipment. Demand WHEN you use things can matter as much to your energy bill as HOW MUCH you use When everyone uses energy at the same time, it costs more for the utility to produce, causing PEAK DEMAND and higher costs BRAINSTORM:
When does peak demand occur daily and annually?
How could you avoid getting peak demand charges? BRAINSTORM:
What activities could you carry out to track energy behavior patterns?
What could you do to encourage energy saving behaviors/deter waste? Plug
Loads Temperature Next Steps Any device that receives electrical power through a cord plugged into an outlet. Include computers, copiers, refrigerators, vending machines and more Some are very inefficient. Plug Load Factors to Consider Phantom Loads Efficient Models Efficient Usage Phantom Loads Many appliances suck up energy even when they are supposedly turned “off” 75% of the electricity that powers home electronics is consumed while these devices are turned off! Look for things with remote controls, small LED lights, that give off heat Brainstorm:
What items do you suspect to have phantom loads? Eliminating Phantom Loads Unplug the device OR
Plug appliances into a POWER STRIP & switch it OFF at the end of the day!
If you can’t turn off the computer – what about the monitor? Printer? Speakers? Save by reducing wattage Most appliances have steadily gained efficiency over the years Look for the Energy Star label Incorporates advanced technologies that use 10–50% less energy and water than standard models Refrigerator Example Today’s new refrigerators use 75% less energy than in 1973 From 1972 to 2003:
Energy Use down 74 %
Capacity up 29%
Price down 64 % Save by reducing TIME OF USE Change Behavior: To turn off appliances when not in use Use More Efficiently:
Fully load dishwasher before running
Don’t prop refrigerator door open/set to a medium temperature WATT METER Measures in watts Energy is billed in kilowatt hours (1000 watts per hour) SAFETY: Remove from the wall/ appliances carefully USE: Always make sure you are
measuring Watts by pressing that
button once and reading the unit
displayed PLUG LOADS WORKSHEET Plug Load
Recommendations Unplug it Plug everything into a power strip and switch that off Turn it off Turn off all auxiliary items (printer, speakers, etc) Remove unnecessary appliances Focus on the biggest energy users first (big, lots of heat, noisy, or lots of them) Often the biggest use of energy in any “conditioned” building Often powered by natural gas or oil as opposed to electricity Temperature Control HVAC Systems It can be set a few degrees warmer in the summer and cooler in the winter to achieve energy savings -
The closer the inside temperature is to the outside air, the less your HVAC system has to work A thermostat is a device for regulating the temperature of a system so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint temperature Building Science Drafts around windows, doors, and other cracks in the building envelope will allow the conditioned air to seep out of a building To stop drafts, buildings can be "WEATHERIZED" Example of where drafts can exist in homes Make sure an unoccupied building isn’t being heated/cooled A good project to undertake is a "Holiday Shut Down" where the school makes sure that all lights are off, devices are unplugged, and HVAC system is turned down or off for the duration of the break. Can save lots of energy and money with minimal effort. INFRARED THERMOMETER Measures in degrees F SAFETY: NEVER point the laser at another person's face USE:
The hotter appliances and lights are, they tend to use more energy.
Check temp of windows to see how insulating they are
Find uneven hot/cold areas and drafts TEMPERATURE WORKSHEET Shows the surface temperature of objects HUMIDITY PEN Measures in DEGREES FARENHEIT, and PERCENT HUMIDITY USE: Hold away from your body so it doesn’t take your body's temperature or humidity
Typical comfortable humidity levels range from about 35-50% Shows the air temperature (degrees F) and humidity (% humidity) of the room HVAC
Recommendations During cold weather, open window draperies and blinds on sunny days to let the daylight in and warm rooms. At night, close the draperies to conserve heat. During the summer, close draperies during the day to keep heat out and open at night to cool the building. Keep heat/cold producing things away from thermostats Keep doors/windows closed and sealed in winter; open in nice weather when HVAC is off Dress warmly in winter and wear light clothing during the summer. Turn off lights when not needed/use cooler bulbs (CFLs) Lower thermostat settings to 70°F in the winter, and raise them to 78°F in the summer. What Can You Do? Open drapes/blinds during day in winter to let sun in; close at night to keep cold out;
Close drapes/blinds during day in summer to keep sun out; open at night to let cool in All windows let some heat from the sun through Eliminate unnecessary heating or cooling when the building is unoccupied. Turn the heating and cooling system off at night and over the weekends and holidays. Do not heat or cool unused office space, storage rooms, closets and other unoccupied spaces. Close duct registers in these areas. Building Tour Use checklist to assess general energy efficiency in the school
Determine areas of probable energy waste and note them to revisit
Go back with tools later to find wattage/light levels/etc and calculate saving potential HVAC Factors to Consider How well a building retains hot or cold air depends on:
1. Air Leakage
3. Insulation Insulation Air Leakage Difference HVAC Types Thermostats System Efficiency HVAC System Delivery
Vents: Radiators: Heating and cooling account for 40 -60% of a building's energy use. System Efficiency Holiday and Summer Shut Downs Insulation is like the blanket you use in bed every night. When you have a thick blanket you can stay nice and warm. When you have a thin one it can be easy to get cold and if your blanket is too small or has holes in it, it won’t do a good job of keeping your whole body warm. The Department of Energy recomends keeping the
temperature at 68 or lower during the winter ...and at 78 or higher during the summer 68 in the winter
78 in the summer Fossil Fuels (Coal, Oil, Natural Gas) Hydroelectic, Nuclear, All Other Renewables In this picture, the rock represents the amount of air leakage
(and lack of insulation) in the building. The more air that leaks out
the harder the HVAC system needs to work under the “heavier” load.
If we are able to reduce the air leakage from the size of a giant boulder
to the size of a pebble it would reduce the amount of work or energy
we need to use to get the temperature to a comfortable level. An efficient HVAC System In this picture, one of the people rolling it up the hill is doing it by hand and the other person has a wheel barrow. Having a more efficient HVAC system means that it is easier and cheaper to heat or cool a building. HVAC efficiency is an important way to stay comfortable, save energy and reduce utility bills. Some HVAC systems are more efficient that others. If you are going to replace a Air Conditioner, Furnace, Boiler or Heat pump make sure to get an Energy Star appliance.
Make sure to clean HVAC filters regularly
Make sure that vents and radiators are clean and not blocked by furniture Temperature Tools An inefficient HVAC System Lots of air leakage = big boulder Less air leakage = a smaller boulder Air Heating Ventilation Conditioning Coal, Hydroelectric, Oil, Natural Gas, Nuclear, All Other Renewables http://www.good.is/ Electricity has 2 basic units: Volts - like the water in the pipe
Amps - like the flow rate of water in the pipe
POWER = AMPS x VOLTS Green Jobs Review Note-Taking Worksheet Average School Building -- Electricty Use Energy Manager Presentation How are you going to save energy? Who will you tell? How are you going to more forward with this? What have you learned today? Quiz/Evaluation Energy Hot Potato Activity Energy Auditor
Solar Panel Installer
Wind Turbine Technician