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Codes & Conventions
Transcript of Codes & Conventions
Challenges ESL Learners Face
with the Imperative
Positive and negative imperatives
What is Allusion?
Definition: A device in which virtue is ultimately rewarded or vice punished, often by an ironic twist of fate intimately related to the character’s own conduct.
Definition: “It is a literary term where the authors uses human traits and characteristics with inanimate objects, phenomena and animals.”
What is a theme?
A common thread or repeated idea that is incorporated throughout a literary work.
“True love conquers all” is the main theme of Sleeping Beauty.
What is symbolism?
An object, character, figure, or color that is used to represent an abstract idea or concept.
Dumbo’s “magic” feather represents courage and self-confidence. Once he truly believes in himself, he no longer needs it as a psychological crutch.
Irony that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the literary work.
Throughout most of The Lion King, Simba mopes around feeling guilty for his father’s death, unaware (as the audience is) that Scar actually killed Mufasa.
A typical character, an action or a situation that seems to represent such universal patterns of human nature. It may be a character, a theme, a symbol or even a setting.
Alice must pass a series of tests as she makes her way through Wonderland. This kind of journey is a common archetype in Western literature and is best epitomized by Homer’s The Odyssey.
A character who illuminates the qualities of another character by means of contrast.
Gaston’s combination of good looks and terrible personality emphasizes Beast’s tragic situation. The former is a monster trapped inside a man; the latter a man trapped inside a monster.
A brief reference in a literary work to a person, place, thing, or passage in another literary work, usually for the purpose of associating the tone or theme of the one work with the other.
In The Hunchback of Notre Dame, the gargoyle Laverne tells a flock of pigeons to “Fly my pretties! Fly, Fly!” à la the Wicked Witch of the West in The Wizard of Oz.
What is foreshadowing?
A warning or indication of a future event.
Before she’s fatally shot by a hunter (and millions of childhoods are scarred), Bambi’s mother gives Bambi a stern lecture on the dangers of man.
What is mood?
The atmosphere that pervades a literary work with the intention of evoking a certain emotion or feeling from the audience.
Fantasia frequently uses music and setting to drastically shift the mood from light and playful to dark and foreboding.
What is dramatic irony?
What is an archetype?
What is a foil?
What is breaking the fourth wall?
Breaking the Fourth Wall
Speaking directly to or acknowledging the audience. The "fourth wall" refers to the imaginary "wall" at the front of the stage in a traditional three-walled box set in a proscenium theater.
Timon acknowledges the audience when he cuts off Pumbaa midsong: “Pumbaa, not in front of the kids!”
The portion of a story that introduces important background information to the audience — for example, information about the setting, events occurring before the main plot, characters’ backstories, etc.
At the beginning of Robin Hood, the rooster Alan-a-Dale describes how Robin Hood has been robbing from the rich to give to Nottingham’s poor.
What is exposition?
What is conflict?
An inherent incompatibility between the objectives of two or more characters or forces.
Usually involves a struggle between two opposing forces usually a protagonist and an antagonist.
When Shere Khan the man-eating tiger returns to the jungle, Mowgli must flee to the safety of human civilization.
What is climax?
What is anagnorisis?
What is poetic justice?
The turning point in the action (also known as the “crisis”) and/or the highest point of interest or excitement.
Pinocchio is transformed into a donkey and sold into labor before he saves Geppetto and proves himself worthy of being a real boy.
The recognition or discovery by the protagonist of the identity of some character or the nature of his own predicament, which leads to the resolution of the plot.
Arthur, thinking he’s just a lowly squire, has no idea he’s the rightful heir to the throne until he pulls the sword from the stone.
Jafar is so power hungry he fails to realize that becoming a genie will cost him his freedom.
It allows the author to use contradictory, contrasting concepts placed together in a manner that actually ends up making sense in a strange, and slightly complex manner
By Ms. Marcelin
The character’s thoughts, dialogue and feelings; as well as, the other characters’ thoughts, dialogue and feelings towards them.
The character’s actions and reactions throughout the story.
The author uses specific words and phrases that exaggerate and overemphasize the statement in order to produce a grander, more noticeable effect.” The purpose of hyperbole is to create a larger-than-life effect and overly stress a specific point.
It is the opposite of understatement.
Example: “I am so tired I cannot walk another inch” or “I’m so sleepy I might fall asleep standing here”.
Words or phrases that usually appeal to the reader’s 5 senses (Touch, Smell, Taste, Hear and Sight).
Helps create a "mental images" for the reader.
Makes stories more dramatic and interesting
It conveys a certain mood
The reader relates more to the object being personified
It is human nature to relate to something with human aspect
Why use personification?
What is connotation?
You have to reflect on ideas presented in the text; through insighful reasoning and perceptive connections.
The reader needs to examine concepts/ideas in the text; make inferences by drawing on
to support meaning.
Always justify your ideas with insightful reasoning & references.
The reader enchances/deepens meaning by intergrating own experiences & other sources into response.
Reflects on one or more personal/global/classwork or media associations related to text.
Try to make personal links to the text by relating it to your reactions, opinions, experiences, interests, thoughts, feelings, etc.
Structure & Features
The reader reflects on the use of stuctures and features (author's craft) and evaluates how they enhance meaning.
Examines at least two of the authors techniques (identifies, illustrates , explaines effectivenesss.
Questions to Ask Yourself
What was the theme of the story?
How do the ideas presented demonstrate the authors purpose for this piece?
What is the authors position on the theme or issue? Use examples.
You have to identify and explain significant ideas found in the text.
Questions to ask yourself
What point of view does the author write from?
How does this influence my overall perception of the text?
What is the point the author is trying to make about the issue/theme?
Questions to ask yourself
Can this text be compared/contrasted with other text or media?
How did the events/characters in this text remind you of something in your own life?
Is there a person/character in the text who had similar experiences to yours? Explain.
Questions to ask yourself
What literary techniques did the author use in the text?
Why was this technique effective in relaying the overall theme or message?
In literature, the word ‘setting’ is used to identify and establish the time, place and mood of the events of the story.
It basically helps in establishing where and when and under what circumstances the story is taking place.
In the first installment of the Harry Potter series, a large part of the book takes place at the protagonist, Harry’s, aunt’s and uncle’s place, living in the “muggle” (non-magical) world with the “muggle” folks, and Harry is unaware of his magical capabilities and blood.
This setting establishes the background that Harry has a non-magical childhood with other “muggle” people and has no clue about his special powers or his parents and is raised much like, actually worse than, regular people, till his 11th birthday.
Focuses your ideas into one or two sentences.
It should present the topic of your paper.
It should also make a comment about your position in relation to the topic.
Your thesis statement should tell your reader what the paper is about.
It should also help guide your writing and keep your argument focused.
Presents your opinions or thoughts on a subject or an issue.
Must contain a subject + an opinion.
TIP: A thesis statement should never contain the following: in my opinion, I think, I believe, etc.
"Most people are other people. Their thoughts are someone else's opinions, their lives a mimicry, their passions a quotation." - Oscar Wilde
Mimicry: the action or of imitating someone or something, typically in order to entertain or ridicule.
quotation: a group of words taken from a text or speech and repeated by someone other than the original author or speaker.
Why does Oscar Wilde say that most people are people? What does he mean by this?
How would you explain the idea that we can become other people? How is this statement true?
What is the importance of a quote such as this one? What is the speaker trying to say to the reader?
What is the speaker saying about humanity or identity?
How would you explain the idea that our thoughts are other people's opinions? Give an example from any text we have read.
Compare this quotation to The Bear That Wasn't. In what ways do other peoples opinion's become his thoughts?
What does Oscar Wilde mean when he says our passions are quotations? Think of the definition for the word quotation.
Explain how we can imitate the lives of others, "mimicry".
The author depicts the occurrence of specific events to the reader, which have taken place before the present time the narration is following, or events that have happened before the events that are currently unfolding in the story.