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Ch. 16 Gilded Age
Transcript of Ch. 16 Gilded Age
increase the government's role in the economy? What was Roosevelt's ideas on the role of government? Essential Question:
What political, social, and economical issues did the nation face during the late 1800's Chapter 16 Gilded Age With the federal troops gone to
enforce rights, southern states
were free to take back control
without concern of federal intervention. *They enacted Jim Crow laws,
* poll tax to vote that most
African Americans could not pay
* Literacy tests kept many blacks from
voting grandfather clauses: allowed a person to vote as long as his ancestors had voted before 1866, which counted blacks out. In 1896 the Plessy v. Ferguson
The supreme court upheld the Jim Crow laws
saying as long as the states adhere to separate
but equal they did not violate the 14th amendment Booker T. Washington: most famous black leader who called for blacks to
"pull themselves up from their own bootstraps" W.E.B Du Bois: argued that blacks should
have full equal rights and not limit themselves to vocational education Ida B. Wells: fought for justice by using
her newspaper "Free Speech" to tell of the horrors to blacks. She was run out of town Chinese Immigrants
face discrimination In 1879, California barred cities from employing Chinese people Oriental
segregated schools were established Sam Song Bo: fought for
Chinese rights In 1886, in the case of Yick Wo v. Hopkins
the U.S. Supreme Court sided with the Chinese and ruled that those born in the U.S. could not be stripped of their citizenship Mexican Americans struggle in the West The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed at the end of the Mexican-American War, guaranteed the property rights of Mexican's who lived in the Southwest prior to the war. Yet 4 out of 5 Mexican Americans who lived in New Mexico lost their land, as did Mexican Americans in other southwestern states. The government required Mexican-Americans to prove their land claims and many could not. Also, Anglo Americans used political
connections to take land away from Mexican Americans. The "Sante Fe Ring"
prominent whites who got the federal government to grant the group control of millions of acres of land in New Mexico. Las Gorras Blancas: a Mexican group that targeted the property of land owners by cutting barbed-wire fences and burning houses.
Supported by a national labor organization,
The Knights of Labor, the group also had a newspaper to voice their grievances Women Make Gains and Suffer Setbacks In 1869 Anthony and Stanton formed the National Woman Suffrage Association to fight for a constitutional amendment that would grant women the right to vote. In 1872, Anthony voted in an election in Rochester, NY, an illegal act for which she was tried and convicted in federal court.
She toured the nation delivering a speech titled "Is it a Crime for a Citizen of the U.S. to Vote?" 16.2 Political and
Economical Challenges 1877-1900
Very few reformed were passed due to government gridlock and corruption President Grover Cleveland was the only President during the Gilded Age that was not corrupted. Why was the government so corrupt? The spoils system was in effect that said that politicians could grant government jobs to loyal party members without much experience, The Civil service is a system that includes federal jobs in the executive branch. Tried to reform the spoils system The Pendleton Civil Service Act in 1883 Established a Civil Service Commission, which wrote a civil
service exam which those who wanted to work for the government had to take This reduced the power of the spoils system American Debate the Tariff Question The government used the gold standard
as the basis of the nation's currency Tax on imports of manufactured goods and some agricultural products was created to protect newly developed industries. Differences over the tariff had divided
the Republicans and the Democrats. In 1873, congress passed the Coinage Act which reserved the government policy of making both gold and silver coins. Some thought it was the "Crime of 1873"
and prompted congress to mint silver dollars. Bankers thought minting silver would undermine the economy. But most farmers favored silver to create inflation. 16.3 Farmers and Populism Section focus question: What led to the rise of the populist movement, and what effect did it have? Populism: a social and political revolt which displayed the dissatisfaction of millions of ordinary Americans (poor farmers, small landholders, and urban workers Populist Movement: the 3rd largest third-party movement in American history. 1. falling prices
between 1870-1895, farm prices plummeted. Cotton sold for 15 cents a pound in 1870's now sold for only 6 cents in the mid 1890's. 2. Rising debt: the cost of doing business rose. Machinery, seed, livestock prices increased and farmers went into debt. Many sold their farms and became tenant farmers (they no longer owned the farm they worked) 3. Big Business Practices Hurt
Farmers blamed big business, especially the railroads because they were monopolies and and charged whatever fees they wanted. Farmers Organize and Seek Change Oliver H. Kelly: Organized the Grange, an organization which provided education on new farming techniques and calling for the regulation of railroad and grain elevator rates. In the mid-1870's the states of Illinois, Wisconsin, and Minnesota enacted laws that set maximum rates for shipping freight and for the grain storage. Farmers' Alliance lead the protest:
These farmers formed cooperatives to collectively sell their crops, and they called on the federal government to establish "sub-treasuries", or postal banks to provide farmers with low interest loans. However they only allowed white farmers to join. So R.M. Humphrey, a white Baptist minister formed the Colored Farmers' Alliance and by 1891 nearly one million black farmers had joined. The Populist Party or People's
Party was formed in 1892 They called for the coinage of sliver or "free silver" The Populist Party dominated James B. Weaver of Iowa as their presidential candidate. The party also reached out to urban workers, to convince them that they faced the same enemy: the industrial elite. However, the democratic party successfully used racist tactics such as warning that a Populist victory would lead to "Negro supremacy" How did Roosevelt change the government's
role in the economy?
What was his actions on natural resources?
Compare and contrast Taft's policies with Roosevelt. Square Deal Roosevelt greatly expanded the power of the president He used his office and it's powers to convince Americans of the need for change and to push through his reforms Square Deal:
1. keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor.
2. fair government did not mean that everyone would get rich or that the government should take care of the lazy In 1887, Congress had created the
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
which oversaw the rail charges for shipments that passed through more than one state. By 1900 the Supreme Court had stripped away most of the ICC's power. So Roosevelt
pushed Congress to pass the Elkins Act in 1903. It imposed fines on railroads that gave special rates to favored shippers. In 1906, Roosevelt got Congress to pass the Hepburn Act, which gave the ICC strong enforcement powers and the authority to set and limit shipping costs. It also set maximum prices for ferries, bridge tolls, and oil pipelines. President Roosevelt earned the reputation as the "trust buster" He knew the difference between good and bad trusts. He only broke up those that hurt the poor. Roosevelt got congress to pass the Meat
Inspection Act in 1906, which used federal agents to inspect any meat sold across state lines and required federal inspection of meat processing plants. John Muir:
California naturalist who's efforts
led Congress to create Yosemite National
Park in 1890 Gifford Pinchot: led the
division of Forestry in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Pinchot
recommended a different approach- the forests be preserved for public use In 1902, congress passed the National Reclamation Act, which gave the federal government would build and manage dams that would build reservoirs, rivers and streams available to farmers in other states. Roosevelt trustbuster Taft only busted
"bad" trusts broke up all trusts regardless of why got Payne-Aldrich Act (1909) which did not lower tariffs as much as Roosevelt had wanted. New Nationalism: a program
to restore the government's
trustbusting power Wilson wins the election of 1912, as the Democratic candidate New Freedom:
Wilson's reform plan
that was much like Roosevelt's
New Nationalism, placing
strict government controls on corporations
He was the 1st
in 60 years. The Republican split: Half going to the Progressive Party and half staying with the Republican party, helped Wilson to win the election. Triple Wall of Privilege
All were attacked by Wilson Wilson got the Underwood
Tariff Bill , which cut
tariffs and created a
graduated income tax
Which the newly passed
16th Amendment allowed
them to do. 16th Amendment: Gave the government
the authority to levy an income tax. Passed
in 1913. Wilson pushed congress to pass the
Federal Reserve Act in 1913
This law placed national banks under the
control of a Federal Reserve board,
which set up regional banks to hold the reserve funds from commercial banks.
This system, still used today, helps
protect the American economy from
having too much money in the hands of
one person, bank, or region.
It set the rates that banks pay to
borrow money from other banks, and it supervises banks to make sure they are well run.