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Parts of Speech

Focusing on nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and really focusing on pronouns.
by

Laura Brooks

on 27 February 2014

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Transcript of Parts of Speech

Facilitated by Laura Brooks
Parts of Speech
Persons, Places, Things, or Ideas
Nouns
Convey an action, an occurrence, or a state of being
Verbs
Describe or modify nouns
Adjectives
Describe (modify) verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs
Adverbs
Think of it this way:

Nouns name
persons,

places,

things,
or
ideas.
For example:

Construction workers
(persons)
discovered mammoth bones
(things)
where Thomas Jefferson School of Law
(place)
is in downtown San Diego
(place).
Panic
(idea)
is contagious so remain calm.
Nouns can also be
common
or
proper.
For example:
My
husband
and I leave for the
city
soon.
Jason
and I leave for
San Francisco

Thursday
.
A
woman
is now in charge of an internet
company
.
Marissa Mayer
is now in charge of
Yahoo.
A noun in verb's clothing:

A tricky noun is one that looks like a verb.

Gerunds
are nouns that are derived from verbs and act as nouns in a sentence. For example:

Running
can be fun.
Swimming
is great exercise.
Napping
is a luxury I rarely have time to indulge.
The hidden you:

For sentences that are commands, the hidden subject is
One more thing to remember:

In a command, the noun/subject "you" is implied. For example:

Take out the trash!
Eat your vegetables!
Don't wake the baby!
Activity time!!!!!!!!
Think of it this way:

A verb is an
action,
an
occurrence,
or
state of being
. For example:

She
ran
to the store to get milk.
The caterpillar
became
a butterfly and flew away.
Michael
was
angry about the earlier conversation.
There are many different tenses of verbs.
The three main tenses are
present
tense,
past
tense, and
future
tense. For example:

Today, I
dance
at 5pm.
Yesterday, I
danced
at 5pm.
Tomorrow, I
will dance
at 5pm.
ALSO:

Collective nouns
can be tricky!
Collective nouns
stand for a group of persons, places, or things that act as units. For example:

His
family
is going on vacation to Orlando, Florida.
The
audience
thunderously applauds for the play every night that they have a show.
Our
class
is on time for our lecture every day.
From there, one can add helping verbs and that adds three more tenses:
present perfect
,
past perfect
, and
future perfect
. For example:

Today, I
have danced
.
Yesterday, I
had danced
.
Tomorrow, I
will have danced
.
From there, it is important to understand how to conjugate verbs. If they are regular verbs, they follow a regular pattern. Here is an example using the verb to walk:

First Person (I): I walk.
Second Person (You): You walk.
Third Person (He, She, It): He/She/It walks.
And if the subject is plural:

First Person (We): We walk.
Second Person (You): You walk.
Third Person (They): They walk.
http://www.usefulcharts.com/english/verb-tenses-timelines.html
ACTIVITY!!!!!!!
Think of it this way:

Adjectives add information about a word or phrase. They add a
description
. For example:

The
disciplined young
man brought
appropriate study
materials to class
every
day.
Compound adjectives can be tricky!

A
compound adjective
is made up of two or more words that work together to describe a noun. Together, they express a single thought. In this case, you need to use a hyphen between those adjectives that are working together before the noun. For example:

They spent a
fun-filled
day at the beach.
The
well-packed
suitcase eased their travel worries.
Activity!!!!!!!!!!!!
Think of it this way: Adverbs describe and add details about
how,

when,
and
where
you did something. For example:

I sang
loudly
at the karaoke bar.
I sang
yesterday
at the karaoke bar.
I sang
there.
Sometimes, an
adverb
describes an
adjective.
For example:

Police officers are
often

charming.
Criminals are
rarely

intelligent.
And sometimes, an
adverb
modifies another adverb. For example:

The teacher was
often

remarkably
funny.
The dolphin swam
incredibly

close
to the surfer.
Take the place of nouns
Pronouns
Activity!!!!!!!!
Think of it this way:
Pronouns
take the place of
nouns.
For example:

Jason
told
Laura
that
they
were going to
The Cheesecake Factory
for lunch.
He
told
her
that
they
were going
there
for lunch.
Where it gets tricky:

Pronouns have different forms, depending on its job in the sentence. Pronouns can be
subjective
or
objective.
For example:

I
went to the fair this summer to see Kenny Loggins.
She
circled the block to find a parking space.
That piece of pizza is for
me
.
Please give the concert tickets to
us
next week.
Pronouns can also be
possessives.
This means that it shows possession. For example:

Mine
was perfectly brewed this morning.
The car was
ours
but we never drove it.
The parking ticket is
your
responsibility.
Its
right wall needed a lot of work.
According to the will, the house was
theirs
.
Now for pronouns in
compound

subjects
. This is where it gets even trickier! When pronouns work with other pronouns or other nouns, they form a
compound

subject
. For example:

Jason and
I
are going to San Francisco tomorrow.
She
and
he
got married in Chula Vista seven years ago.
He
and Riley beat Randall at the board game.
But wait! There's more! There are also
compound objects
. They are similar to compound subjects, but instead of performing the action (the subject of the action), they are the the
object
of the action. For example:

Riley beat Randall and
him
at the board game.
The llama spit at Sharon and
her
when they angered it.
I will take the baby with me and
him
.
Pronoun-Noun agreement can also be very tricky!!!! Pronouns need to agree with the nouns they replace in
number
,
person
, and
gender
. For example:

The
lady
at the grocery store picked up
her
purse and paid for her groceries.
Michael and Sean
said that
they
were going to bring the beer to the party.
The
audience
returned to
its
seats after intermission.
There are MANY other rules for pronouns. There are pronouns that end in "self," like myself, yourself, ourselves, and themselves. There are indefinite pronouns like anybody, anyone, each, either, everybody, few, many, and several. There is also a really tricky set of pronouns: who and whom. And an even trickier set: that and which. We can go into those later, if needed, but for now, you can always find more information at the Purdue OWL site, found here: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/595/02/
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