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Electromagnetic Regenerative Vibration Energy Harvester for Automotive Application - 06/12/2014

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Navneet Bhasin

on 26 October 2014

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Transcript of Electromagnetic Regenerative Vibration Energy Harvester for Automotive Application - 06/12/2014

Electromagnetic Regenerative Shock Absorbers for Automotive Application
Outlook - 12 June 2014

Project Summary (Aims & Objectives)
Background & Motivation
Why Electromagnetic (EM) Regenerative Shock Absorber
Comfort & Vehicle Dynamics Assessment
Construction & Working
CAD Model
Matlab Simulation Results
Project Summary

Why Electromagnetic Regenerative Suspension
1. No heat generation due to friction: Hydraulic and Piezo are other methods but have losses due to contact.
2. Direct conversion of energy = Less loss
3. Capable of operating in both compression or expansion stroke.
4. Can be packaged in current vehicle architecture.
5. Ability to be used as active/semi active suspension.
Background & Motivation
Construction & Working
Comfort & Vehicle Dynamics
Background - Comfort & Dynamics :
- Ideal suspension has to deal with the dynamic performance of the vehicle and passenger comfort.
- While designing this suspension system there are various behaviors like road disturbances, roll and pitch etc. are to be considered which will Impact motion sickness & head toss.
AUTO 1035 - Final Presentation
(12 June)

Navneet Bhasin
Sanjay Kumar Eruva
Mohammed Bawahab

Dr Xu Wang; Han Xiao (Phd)
RMIT University


- Hybrid/Electrical cars - Charge batteries and improve miles per charge.

- Conventional vehicle - Replacement for alternator/power source for audio and lights.
Disadvantages:
1. Complex design.
2. Need of converter or motor to charge battery.
Aims & Objectives:

1. Design and validate electromagnetic vehicle suspension system
2. Methods to Increase energy generation (Increase flux, coil lenght, better material)
3. Energy harvest without sacrificing passenger comfort and vehicle dynamics.

Working Principle:
Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction : production of a potential difference (voltage) across a conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field.

Animation: https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/faradays-law/faradays-law_en.html

BOM: Coil, Magnets, Spacers, Center Rod, Outside cylinder/cover

Coil Assy:

- Properties of coil (conductor) are fundamental design consideration.
- Important properties: Number of coils and reistance - Govern voltage development.
- Other important factors: Dimensions, density, conductance.

Material Selected for this project: Copper

Center Rod: Steel vs Aluminium
- Aluminium
- Low permeability
- Low weight
Outside cylinder: Steel vs Aluminium
- Steel
- High permiability

Construction & Working
Magnet Assy:
- Types of magnets: Electro magnet, Ferro and Ferri.
- More magnetic flux, more power will be produced.
- Important properties: Flux density, Working temperature, Density.

Magnet selected for this project: Neodymium iron boron (NdFeB)
Refrences
- Increase in unsprung masses will directly impact the passenger comfort.
- Vehicle dynamics and passenger comfort depends on the sprung mass to unsprung mass ratio.
Construction & Working
- Highest flux density, = higher energy harvest.
- Suffers from low operating temperature:
Magnets Arrangement
Single layer
Double Layer
References:
- (1) Design of Electromagnetic Shock Absorbers for Energy Harvesting from Vehicle Suspensions
A Thesis Presented by Pei Sheng Zhang
- (2)Babak Ebrahimi (2009) ‘Development of Hybrid Electromagnetic Dampers for Vehicle
Suspension Systems’, A Ph.D Thesis, University of Waterloo
- (3) Vehicle Energy Dissipation Due to Road Roughness
STEVEN A. VELINSKY* and ROBERT A. WHITEt
- (4) Ping Hsu Department of Ellectrical Engineering San Jose State University
San Jose, CA 95192
- (5) http://www.monroe.com/en-US/support/Technical-Training/Understanding-Vehicle-Dynamics/
- (6) https://www.google.com.au/search?q=regenerative+shock+absorber&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa
- (7) Active Electromagnetic Suspension System for Improved Vehicle Dynamics, Bart L. J. Gysen, IEEE
- (8) Vibration Control Using Semi-Active Force Generator, D. Karnopp, M. J
- (9) The Variable Linear Transmission for Regenerative Damping in Vehicle Suspension Control; FIELD, M. F
- (10) Spatially Varying Multi Degree of Freedom Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting ;Gatti, R. R. (2013)

Flux vs Magnet arrangement
Barak Ebrahimi (2)
Field (9)
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Ref(6)
Barak Ebrahimi (2)
Zhang (1)
Quarter Car Model with Viscous Damper and Electromagnetic Energy Harvester
Sample Design of Regenerative Suspension
Construction and Working
Coil Profile:
- Three phase coil design will have more power generated than two phase design.
- Voltage in coil 1 increases to its maximum at 30 degrees.
- Voltage in coil 3 increases to its minimum at 60 degrees.
- Maximum voltage achieved in coil 2 at 90 degrees and experiences maximum load at 150 degrees.
- The number of peaks corresponding to the number of phases. More the number of peaks , most output energy is generated.
Three Phase Design
Construction and Working
Energy Harvesting System:
There are four main factors to be considered for power management in this energy harvesting system:
1) To convert AC to DC : Traditional rectifier with four diodes.
2) To enhance energy harvesting efficiency : Synchronous rectifier could be used for high efficiency, especially in low-voltage applications.
3) To control the vibration :
- Design first with full active control algorithm and then put constraints.
- Include the constraint while designing the controller.
4) To regulate power flow.
Typical Power electronic circuit in vibration energy harvesting
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CAD Model
2DOF Model
Governing equation of motion
Matlab Simulations 2DOF
Displacement X1
vs Frequency
Voltage vs Frequency
Re=0.3; Le=0.016; T=1.5; % T=B*l R=30455.3;
k1=130000 k2=26000 m1=40 m2=260
c1=264.7263 c2=520
Matlab Simulation
Voltage generation almost 3 x when increasing the length of the coil. More the surface area to absorb magnetic flux more voltage generation.
Increase in voltage with increasing magnetic flux. Theoratical limit apply. Compare through graph
Increasing Magnetic Flux
Increasing Wire Length
Displacement X2
vs Frequency
Voltage vs Frequency
Voltage vs Frequency
EM Regenerative Damping
Convert vehicle vibration into electrical

Direct conversion high efficiency

Damping through lorrentz force & magnetic damping
Regenerative vs Conventional
- Capability to continuously recovering vehicles vibration energy due to road irregularities, acceleration & braking which is otherwise wasted as heat.

- 4 x shock absorber on a normal passenger car driving at 65mph can regenerate ~400W Field (9)
Potential Customers
Peak Voltage 7V @ 3Hz
Automotive vehicle losses Sheng Zhang (1)
Zhang (1)
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