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The Muscular System

Health Pathway

Keenan Icarangal

on 17 September 2012

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Transcript of The Muscular System

The body has more than 600 muscles, accounts for 40% of its weight for men and 30% in women. It is comprised of elastic fibers that contract to produce movement when stimulated by nerve impulses. There are three types of muscle tissue differentiated in both structure and function: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Muscles are grouped by location: Head muscle (scalp, eyelids, nose, mouth, and jaws), Anterolateral neck muscles (cervical, hyoid, anterior and lateral vertebral muscles), and Trunk muscles (thorax, abdomen, back, pelvis, perineum). Description Provide movement: Movements and actions of the body caused by contraction of skeletal muscle; provide protection and support for other tissues; generate heat: 85% of heat produced in the body is the result of muscle contraction
Maintain Posture: Certain muscles work constantly to maintain stationary body positions and balance, as when sitting or standing. They tense against the force of gravity and the pull of other muscles
Stabilize joints: Skeletal muscles tense to strengthen and stabilize very flexible joints, like the shoulder, when the joints come under strain due to body actions. Functions Involuntary Muscle: Functions without conscious control.
Voluntary Muscle: Having control over its action Objective 1 Rotation: Turning a body part around its own axis.
Adduction: Moving a body part toward the midline
Abduction: Moving a body part away from the midline.
Extension: Increasing the angle between two bones, or straightening a body part.
Fexion: Decreasing the angle between two bones, or bending a body part. Objective 2 Functions-
Excitability: Irritability, ability to respond to a stimulus/contraction such as a nerve impulse. Muscle recieves stimuli in the form of nerve signals from the nervous system.
Contractibility: Muscle fibers stimulated by nerves become short and thick which causes movement. Ability to shorten. Whole muscle may contract by 15-20% of its normal/resting length.
Extensibility: Ability to be stretched/extended. Arranged in pairs so that when one contracts, the other is stretched longer in relation to its relaxed or resting state. Some muscles can be extended to more then twice their normal resting length.
Elasticity: Allows the muscle to return to its original shape/resting size after it has contracted or stretched (extension).
3 types-
Cardiac: Forms the walls of the heart and contracts to circulate blood
Visceral: (Smooth Muscle) Contracts to cause movement in organs.
Skeletal: Attached to bones and causes body movement. Objective 3 Fibromyalgia causes pain, stiffness, and tenderness of muscles, tendons, and joints without detectable inflammation.
It does not cause body damage or deformity but, fatigue occurs in 90% of patients. Irritable bowel syndrome can occur, and sleep disorder is common in patients with fibromyalgia. There is no test for the diagnosis.
Disease can be associated with other rheumatic conditions. Fibromyalgia Muscular Dystrophy Myasthenia Gravis Impact on the system It affects several body tissues and organs but it most prominently affects the integrity of muscle fibers. The disease causes muscle degeneration, progressive weakness, fiber death, fiber branching and splitting, phagocytosis (in which muscle fiber material is broken down and destroyed by scavenger cells), and, sometimes, chronic or permanent shortening of tendons and muscles. Also, overall muscle strength and tendon reflexes are usually lessened or lost due to replacement of muscle by connective tissue and fat. Athletic Trainer You need a bachelor's degree or Master's degree in athletic training.
To get your license, you need to graduate from an accredited athletic training program; pass the BOC exam or a separate state exam.
You need to complete the BOC exam, adhere to the BOC standards of Practice and Disciplinary process and continue to take education courses in order to get a certification of athletic training. Massage Therapist You need your High School Diploma and you need to complete the national exam (Massage and Bodywork Licensing Examination) and the National Certification Examination for Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork. Physical Therapist Need to have a degree in Physical Therapy and residency lasts for nine months to three years. Need to pass the National Physical Therapy Examination in order to be a licensed Physical Therapist.
Muscle fibers of patients with MG are easily fatigued, and thus do not respond as well as muscles in healthy individuals to repeated stimulation.
Myasthenia Gravis causes rapid fatigue and loss of strength in persons affected which improves once they have rested. In the early stages of the disease, the person's muscles which control their eye movement, chewing, facial expressions, and swallowing may be affected. Left untreated, the disease can affect the muscles the person uses to breath, resulting in acute respiratory failure. Muscles that control the person's limb movements may also be affected.

Children with Neonatal Myasthenia may have acquired immune proteins from their mother who is affected with Myasthenia Gravis. Infants with Neonatal Myasthenia Gravis experience temporary symptoms that commonly disappear within about two or three months after they have been born. Other infants develop Myasthenia Gravis that is indistinguishable from that adults experience; the disease is common in juveniles. On rare occasion, children can show signs of either congenital myasthenic syndrome or congenital myasthenia. Neither of these are autoimmune disorders; they are caused by defective genes which produce proteins in either acetylcholinesterase, or the acetylcholine receptor. Athletic Trainers specialize in in preventing, diagnosing, and treating muscle and bone injuries and illnesses.They work with people of all ages and all skill levels, from young children to soldiers and professional athletes. They work under the direction of a physician, as well as other health care providers. There are many responsibilities of an Athletic Trainers. Some of them are:
-Apply protective or injury preventive devices such as tape, bandages, and braces.
-Recognize and evaluate injuries
-Provide first aid or emergency care
-Develop and carry out rehabilitation programs for injured athletes
-Plan and implement comprehensive programs to prevent injuries and illness from athletes
-Do administrative tasks, such as keeping records and writing reports on injuries and treatment programs Massage therapists use their hands, fingers, forearms, elbows, and sometimes feet to knead muscles and soft tissue of the body to treat injuries to promote general wellness. There are many responsibilities of a Massage Therapist, such as:
-Talk with clients about symptoms, medical history, and desired results
-Evaluate clients to locate painful or tense areas of the body
-Manipulate muscles or other soft tissues of the body
-Provide clients with guidance on how to improve posture, stretching, strengthening, and overall relaxation Physical Therapists help people who have injuries or illnesses improve their movement and manage their pain. They are often part of rehabilitation and treatment of patients with chronic conditions or injuries. There are many responsibilities of Physical Therapists, such as:
-Diagnose patients' dysfunctional movements by watching them stand or walk and by listening to their concerns, among other methods
-Set up a plan for their patients, outlining the patient's goals and the planned treatments
-Use exercises, stretching maneuvers, hands on therapy, and equipment to ease patients' pain and to help them increase their ability to move
-Evaluate a patients' progress, modifying a treatment plan and trying new treatments as needed
-Educate patients and their families about what to expect during recovery from injury and illness and how best to cope with what happens Myasthenia Gravis cannot be prevented, but avoiding the following helps prevent exacerbation:
-Emotional stress
-Exposure to extreme temperatures
-Low levels of potassium in the blood
-Overextertion Muscular Dystrophy cannot be prevented. Genetic counseling is recommended if there is a family history of the disease. Women can still have the disease, even if they have no symptoms. Fibromyalgia cannot be prevented or cured. They diagnose injuries by evaluating them. If the injury is really bad, they are sent to the hospital. They prevent diseases by planning and implementing comprehensive programs. They treat diseases by providing first or emergency care. They cannot prevent fibromyalgia, simply because there is no way to prevent it. But they can help by stretching the patient. A Massage Therapist is not trained to diagnose or treat injuries. They can, however, use various muscle techniques that either relax tight muscles or loosen tight tissue. They can help fibromyalgia by massaging the sore muscle or tissue area. Physical Therapists focus on the treatment, healing and prevention of injuries. They come up with a personalized treatment plan based on your injury to heal it and prevent it later on. Physical Therapists can treat fibromyalgia by teaching people with fibromyalgia how to build strength and improve their range of motion. They show them ways to get relief from deep muscle pain, and they can help people with fibromyalgia learn how to make sensible decisions about daily activities that will prevent painful flare-ups. Bibliography “Fibromyalgia Symptoms, Treatment, Medication, Diet.” MedicineNet (2012): 1.1. Web. 11 Sept. 2012.
Harding, David. Osborn, Chris. Human Anatomy on File: Building Blocks and Muscular System Glossary Index. Facts on File, Inc. New York. 2003. 12 Sept. 2012
How does Muscular Dystrophy (MD) affect the muscles?.” Sharecare (2010): 4.1. Web. 11 Sept. 2012
The Illustrated Guide To The Human Body: Skeletal And Muscular System. New York, Infobase Publishing, 2005. Print.
Kessman, Scott. "Growing Trends in Physical Therapy -- Telehealth." Yahoo! Contributor Network. Yahoo, 22 July 2011. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://voices.yahoo.com/growing-trends-physical-therapy-telehealth-8835013.html>.
Lowe, Martin. "Thailand Sets Trend in "massage Tourism"" CCTV News. CCTV News, 10 Sept. 2012. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://english.cntv.cn/program/newsupdate/20120910/105842.shtml>.
Martini, Federic H.Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology. San Francisco, Boston, New York: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2006. Print.
"Microsoft Kinect Used for Massage Therapy." GMA News Online. GMA News Online, 13 May 2011. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/220507/scitech/microsoft-kinect-used-for-massage-therapy>.
Muscular System Diseases. Buzzle. www.buzzle.com/articles/muscular-system-diseases.html. 2000. 12 Sept. 2012.
"Physical Therapy Technology Helps Patients Regain Mobility - News-herald.com." The News-Herald. The News-Herald, 7 Mar. 2010. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://www.news-herald.com/articles/2010/03/07/life/nh2157365.txt?viewmode=fullstory>.
Renewal Technologies. "Breakthrough Pain Relief." Athletic Trainers Embrace Breakthrough Treatment for Pain Relief. LaserOneTouch, 4 Aug. 2011. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://info.lasertouchone.com/blog/bid/59596/Athletic-Trainers-Embrace-Breakthrough-Treatment-for-Pain-Relief>.
Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Fibromyalgia." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 22 Jan. 2011. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/fibromyalgia/DS00079/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs>.
Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Muscular Dystrophy." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 18 Jan. 2012. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/muscular-dystrophy/DS00200/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs>.
Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Myasthenia Gravis." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 21 Sept. 2010. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/myasthenia-gravis/DS00375/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs>.
Weiss, Thomas C. “Myasthenia Gravis- Definition, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment.” Disabled World Towards Tomorrow (2009): 3.1. Web. 11 Sept. 2012.
White, John. Inner Body; Muscular System-Muscles of the Human Body. Sciencefacts Inc. InnerBody Inc. New York. 1999. 12 Sept. 2012. Description -chronic, widespread pain in specific muscle sites
-muscle stiffness; numbness/tingling in arms and legs
-Leads to fatigue, sleep disturbances, headaches, depression Description a group of inherited diseases-lead to chronic, progressive muscle atrophy appears in early childhood; most result in total disability/death
common disease is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (genetic effect; muscular cells die in 2-5 years age; 9-12 age=wheelchair)
can affect heart and diaphragm: respiratory failure-life expectancy: late teen to early 20’s 1) Lewis University. Romeoville, IL. Undergrad: $12,885
2) Anderson University. Anderson, IN. undergrad: $25,4003)
4) University of New England. Biddeford and Portland, Maine. Undergrad: $43,120 1) Carrington University. Phoenix, AR. Undergrad: $11, 398
2) National Massage Therapy Institute. Willington, DL. Undergrad: $12,000 annual
3) New York College of Health Professionals. New York, NY. Undergrad: $2,330 per trimester. Prevention Treatment Medications can help reduce the pain of fibromyalgia and improve sleep.
Some medications include:
Analgesics for pain and stiffness
Antidepressants for pain and fatigue
Anti-seizure drugs for pain reduction Impact on the system Prevention Treatment There is currently no cure for muscular dystrophy. Medications like Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, may help improve muscle strength and delay the progression of certain types of muscular dystrophy. Therapy can be used to extend the range of motion of people with muscular dystrophy, help keep their muscles stretched and flexible, and help them breathe better. Impact on the system Description Prevention Treatment Medication consists mainly of cholinesterase inhibitors to directly improve muscle function and immunosuppressant drugs to reduce the autoimmune process. Weakness in skeletal muscles caused by an abnormality that prevents muscles from contracting. The Muscular System Diseases Careers Job description Colleges What do athletic trainers do? Certification Responsibilities Modern Technology Athletic trainers are now using a new technology called LaserOneTouch to help relieve pain in patients. It is a breakthrough technology that uses heat to relieve the muscles that are tightened or stressed. Latest Trend Lately, many medical students are studying orthopedics. This is because of the pay is good and there is a large demand for sports medicine physicians. Job Description Responsibilities Certification Colleges Modern Technology Job description Responsibilities Certification Latest trends Telehealth is a growing trend in physical therapy. This is defined as the use of electronic communication to provide and deliver physical therapy related information and services using text messages, emails, faxes, as well as giving advice over the internet Modern Technology Microsoft's Kinect gaming accessory is now an important tool for massage therapists. Using the Kinect's camera, the video projector relays the output onto the client's boy and gives the therapist a colorful guide. A new technology in physical therapy that is helping patients regain mobility is the use of functional electrical stimulation. This device helps patients recover from their debilitated arms and legs Latest trend Thailand sets a new trend in massage therapy. This billion dollar a year industry is promoting massage tourism. Thai massage is a rhythmic pressing and stretching and when no oils are used and it lasts for 2 hours. It promotes relaxation and can also relieve muscle pain all conducted in massage parlor with many people.
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