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LGBTQ Career Development, A Holistic Approach

Career Development + LGBTQ students

Jon Rosenfield

on 27 November 2017

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Transcript of LGBTQ Career Development, A Holistic Approach

mood and anxiety disorders
drug abuse
harassment and violence
suicidal thoughts
suicide attempts even higher for transgender
Identity Development
Multiple points of interaction
with Identity Development
Sense of efficacy is typically begins developing prior to the challenge of identity
Research suggests that social supports can mitigate this phenomenon
Career Theory Constraints
Important and helpful to note subjective perception
Normative Identity Development + adaptation to environment
is central to many prominent Career Development Theories
How bad is it for LGBTQ Youth?
Major Issues Affecting Development
85% verbally harassed

36% physically harassed

49% experienced electronic harassment

17% were assaulted at school
School Was Not Safe for LGBT Youth in 2013
Effects of school victimization
Work Adjustment
Reliant on "genuineness" and "flexibility".
Best Practices for Advisement
Direct Responsibility for facilitating support
Awareness of challenge of disclosure, and how it complicates other ideas about "diversity"
Cass Model of Identity Formation

Stage One: Identity Confusion: Am I gay?
Stage Two: Identity Comparison: I may be gay.
Stage Three: Identity Tolerance I am probably gay.
Stage Four: Identity Acceptance: I am gay.
Stage Five: Identity Pride I am PROUD to be gay.
Stage Six: Identity Synthesis I am who I am.
Assist students in assessing ID
Assist students in identifying:
Developmental challenges
support/assets/points of resilience
Appropriate campus services/orgs
Implications for LGB within careers/companies/academic departments
Is college any better?
Campus Climate
More than 70% of gay/lesbian college students experience sexual harassment from their peers, faculty and staff.

Compared to their hetero peers...

23% are significantly more likely to experience harrassment

7 times more likely to indicate harassment was based on sexual identity

Twice as likely to be targets of derogatory remarks
What about the workplace?

Let's review current policy: There is NO federal law protecting GLB individuals from employment discrimination.
The Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA) that prohibits discrimination based on both gender identity and sexual orientation is not yet ratified and may take years before passed.
So which states are doing it right?
Geography Matters
The southeast and midwest are the most non-responsive to laws that give LGBTQ employees rights at work
The northeast and southwest states are the most accomodating
50% of LGBTQ people consciously move to or stay in a liberal or gay-friendly state
At The Workplace
53% of LGBT employees are not "out" at work
1 in 4 continue to hear offensive comments
1 in 5 have looked for a new job due to an unaccepting culture
What's Corporate America Doing About It?
The Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale
Developed by Markus P. Bidell, Ph.D.
" I have been to conferences/workshops which focused on LGB issues. "
(Scale from 1-7 in order of not at all true to totally true)
"I think that my students should accept some degree of conformity to traditional sexual values."
Understand the challenges faced by LGBTQ students from adolescence through early adulthood.
21 states and the district of columbia explicitly prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation.

17 states and D.C. currently have nondiscrimination measures that also include gender identity.

• How do I find LGBTQ-inclusive employers?
• Should I be "out" on my resume?
• When is it okay to come "out" at work?
• How do I handle discrimination?
• What are my legal rights?

Typical Developmental Milestones
(College Years)

15 - 43% of LGBT workers have experienced being fired, denied promotions or harassed.
Hall's (2002) definition of career:

"...the individually perceived sequence of attitudes and behaviors associated with work..."
However, over-emphasis here can discount structural barriers
Without awareness of LGBTQ Identity Development, subjective perception may seem "confused" or "flawed"
Resources For Up-to-the-minute LGBTQ info
Human Rights Campaign

Williams Institute (UCLA Think Tank)

LGBTQ individuals may avoid careers in which:
It would be difficult to "pass"
The penalties of coming out would be too high.
Social aspects of work adjustment
Development of mentoring/supportive relationships
Workplace decor - whose photo's are on the desk?
Overt heterosexism still exists - but also:
Inhibited development of mentors/social support
Shifts in workplace/career constantly reintroduce disclosure issues - energy and focus can be lost in this process
Be more aware of our own attitudes, misconceptions, knowledge and skill levels for advising students who identify as LGBTQ.
Apply best practices for supporting college students who identify as LGBTQ through a career advising lens as well as other advising roles.
Developing Confidence
Managing Emotions
Autonomy to Interdependence
Mature Relationships
Establishing Identity
Developing Purpose
Developing Integrity
Revolves around the mutual satisfaction of employee/employer.
These factors are complicated by
Identity Development
Readiness to disclose
Cultural forces within an organization
Constructivist Approaches:
Cass Model of Identity Formation
Six Stage Linear Model

Stage One: Identity Confusion: Am I gay?
Stage Two: Identity Comparison: I may be gay.
Stage Three: Identity Tolerance I am probably gay.
Stage Four: Identity Acceptance: I am gay.
Stage Five: Identity Pride I am PROUD to be gay.
Stage Six: Identity Synthesis I am who I am.
Measure A Counselor's:
Attitudinal Awareness
(Perceived) minority status can comprimise sense of efficacy
Negotiation of LGBTQI identities require additional psychological resources due to the question of
Non-dominant cultural status presents challenges to I.D.:
"Bottleneck" theory:
ID tasks compete for psychological resources.
Support -> mediate ID prioritization
college adjustment -> career outcomes
Perceived support -> college adjustment
Self-awareness and reflection
LGBTQ Identity Development Models
Self-awareness of comfort and interaction style.
Institutional Support / Safe Space Training + Messaging
LGBTQ Career Development:
A Holistic Approach

Jon Rosenfield
Brigette Petersen
Comfort with body
Comfort with gender and SO
Sense of self

This year 89% of
Fortune 500
have sexual orientation non-discrimination policies in place
less likely to plan on college/trade school
66% of
Fortune 500
include both sexual orientation and gender identity protections (5% increase from 2014)
1 in 4 transgender employees say they have lost a job due to gender status
Transgender, students face even more hurdles
80% experience harassment at school
59% required to use a bathroom or locker room of their legal sex
90% transgender employees say they've dealt with harassment at work
lower self-esteem
higher depression levels
lower GPAs
more school absences
42% prevented from using preferred name
LUC's LGBTQIA students reported:
National trends in public opninion (1977 - 2014)

Public support for marriage equality has more than doubled since early 2000s

Support adoption rights for same sex couples has doubled to 63%

72% of the public supports laws that protect gay/lesbians from job discrimination

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