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The Contexts and Directions of Australian Education
Transcript of The Contexts and Directions of Australian Education
EDU4CCE Task 1 The Contexts and
of Australian Education ...but is George really at a disadvantage? Looking at it from another perspective- He is only 24 and works for himself, owns a car, earns a good weekly wage (that many teachers could only dream of) and has already bought property. Most would say he is very successful.
He hasn't got tertiary fees to pay off for the next decade or more of his life either.
Just something to consider when comparing public and private school systems... Wages and
Unions Industrial Context Global Context As some of the possible future directions of education have been suggested through the description of contexts in this presentation, we as teachers can only wait and hope for the best in all areas. Social, Political and
Economic Contexts Philosophies carried today and well into the future:
-Comenius: Teachers learn not to rush or pressure their students, and create a pleasant and comfortable environment for the classroom.
-Rousseau: Teachers should follow the interests of their students.
-Dewey: Group activities, collaborative learning and process-centered strategies.
-Montessori: Many Montessori schools worldwide.
-Piaget: Influences contemporary constructivist instruction, as he believes that children construct their own reality rather than copy.
Ornstein, A. C., Levine, D. U., & Gutek, G. (2010). Foundations of Education (11th ed.). America: Cengage Learning. Video References:
Children’s Encyclopedia of Women. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.pocanticohills.org/womenenc/montesso.html
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/rousseau/
Ornstein, A. C., Levine, D. U., & Gutek, G. (2010). Foundations of Education (11th ed.). America: Cengage Learning.
Project Labyrinth of the World. Retrieved from http://www.labyrint.cz/en/comenius
Rollins Education. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.rollins.edu/125/pointsofpride/5.html
Wikipedia. (2012). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget
Music- Mozart's Piano Sonata no.11 Rondo Alla Turca. Philosophical Context Historical Context As physical characteristics of school buildings changed ‘special teaching technologies’ were able to be installed. In the 1850s blackboards, desks, maps and pictures could be hung up in classrooms. These classrooms are "historical inventions" (Vick, 2005, p.58). By the end of the nineteenth century they were accepted as the ‘standard’.
Now schools continue to introduce new technologies in their classrooms- projectors or TVs, interactive whiteboards, and even computer rooms/labs. As new technologies continue to develop schools will slowly implement them into the classroom to “provide better, more efficient, more effective ways of teaching” (Vick, 2005, p.59). Architecture and pedagogy are often related, especially when looking at ‘open-space’ classrooms. They have in the past been brought in to create ‘alternative’ pedagogies such as team teaching and individualised learning. Teachers usually complain about how these open spaces affect ‘normal’ pedagogy (Vick, 2005, p.59). They bring up issues such as noise, interference and distraction from other lessons, and getting lost in the space.
In the future I see education moving towards more of these open learning spaces in place of classrooms. Just like when school buildings were created and became the ‘norm’, I think eventually all schools will begin to adopt this architecture and its related pedagogy and will slowly turn away the more ‘traditional’ classrooms and their set-up. It is true that open learning spaces have been around for a while and it is not necessarily a new concept, but it is something that is becoming more and more common in schools and I foresee it to continue to do so. YouTube. (2008). Large Learning Spaces - John XXIII Primary. Retrieved from http:// www. youtube.com /watch?v=N-dfraT17IQ Public vs. Private The Karmel Report commissioned by the Whitlam government in 1972, laid it out for all to see. The report argued that action needed to be taken to reduce the inequality.
RETENTIVITY TO YEAR 12 IN AUSTRALIA BY KIND OF SCHOOL, LATE 1960s
Government schools: 27.6%
Catholic schools: 35.2%
Non-Catholic private schools: 86.5% Until recently, there was very little evidence to show that the social inequality has changed in any way. If anything the Australian governments have held up the private sector, putting public schools in possible risk (Furze et. al., 2011, p.218). However the schooling system recreated class, ethnic and gender inequalities in society.
A lot of parents sent their children to Catholic schools to support their faith, and a smaller number of parents chose elite private schools. These schools for a century or more produced a number of society's leaders.
"The system was certainly unequal" (Furze et. al., 2011, p.217). The majority of schools were private before the 'Free, Compulsory and Secular Acts' were established and passed between 1870-1890.
Then state schools became the majority over the first half of the 20th century.
They supported democracy- the opportunity of secondary education should be offered to all in society no matter what background. Furze, B., Savy, P., Brym, R. & Lie, J. (2011). Sociology in Today's World (2nd ed.). Australia: Cengage Learning. Furze, B., Savy, P., Brym, R. & Lie, J. (2011). Sociology in Today's World (2nd ed.). Australia: Cengage Learning. By the 1950s-1960s: Tertiary sector of the economy expanded.
It became a major requirement for workforces. Literacy skills and self-efficiency became more directly relevant to the economy.
So...the economic conditions have shaped education as schools began teaching with added pressures from the governments to meet economic needs.
Vick, M. (2005). Watching the Clock: Changes and Continuities. In Allen, J. Sociology of Education (pp. 74-75). Australia: Cengage Learning. After high school... YouTube. (2012). Closing the gap- public and private schools. Retrieved from http://www. youtube. com/watch?v=aunZ3_e2BtE The changing classroom On the 5th of September 2012, teachers of Victoria took industrial action because of Ted Baillieu's broken promise to make Victorian teachers the highest paid of the country. Teachers want the promised 30% pay rise over three years and a reduction in short term contracts. It was the largest teacher strike in Victorian history.
Baillieu's new policy is based on a 2.5% annual pay rise over three years, and extra performance pay. He plans to "allow the 'best' teachers to earn top dollar" (Tomazin, 2012). This proposal is more about identifying the under performing teachers (Tomazin, 2012).
Tomazin, F. (2012, June 17). Teacher Reward Scheme a Hard Sell When Built on Broken Promises. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/politics/teacher-reward-scheme-a-hard-sell-when-built-on-broken-promises-20120616-20gvw.html 1801-1900 2001 and the future... 1901-2000 Only a small proportion of teachers employed for wages.
With the establishment of Education Departments, the majority of teachers became employees.
Teaching a religious duty for some Catholic Orders (this is still relevant to the present).
Part of teacher's incomes dependent on students' results from exams. Married women large proportion of teaching force- held temporary positions- no promotions.
Promotion positions male dominated.
'Second wave' of feminism and more teacher union support in the 60s= more equality.
Secondary teachers paid more than primary teachers until the 70s.
Teacher complaints- incomes are lower than respected white-collar occupations.
The 70s saw an increase in pay, but only to "level off again in relation to other white-collar and quasiprofessional positions" (Vick, 2005, p.87). A report on wages has suggested that over the past ten years "they have fallen behind both professional and genral community incomes" (Vick, 2005, p.87).
Teacher unions remain strong and campaign for a variety of issues.
Teachers wages have ALWAYS been uneven between the Australian states, public and private schools, gender, type of school and position within the hierarchical structure. Vick, M. (2005). In and Out of the Classroom: Teachers' Work in a Changing Society. In Allen, J. Sociology of Education (pp. 81-103). Australia: Cengage Learning. Part 1 : Part 2: Created by Natasha Nicastri. Created by Natasha Nicastri Created by Natasha Nicastri. Created by Natasha Nicastri. Music: Eurythmics- Sisters are doin' it for themselves. Both videos referenced at the end of Video 2. Gonski Report expenditure chart.
Expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education as a percentage of GDP, 2008. ABC News. (2012). Gonski Report Expenditure Chart. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-08-27/gonski-report-expenditure-chart/4220370 Where Australia is at in relation to other countries...
From this chart, based on information from 2008 we can see that Australia's public expenditure is under the world's average, and Australia's private expenditure is over the average of public expenditure but under public and private combined expenditures.
The Gonski report proposes an extra $5 billion per year across all sectors is required to bridge the gap between the highest and lowest performing students.
"The report says the performance of Australian students has declined at all levels over the last 10 years.
It says in 2000, only one country outperformed Australia in reading and scientific literacy, and only two outperformed Australia in mathematical literacy.
But by 2009, six countries outperformed Australia in reading and scientific literacy, and 12 had students who were better at maths" (ABC News, 2012, para. 2).
ABC News. (2012). What's in the Gonski Report? Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-08-27/whats-in-the-gonski-report/4219508
As we wait for Gillard's plan of action regarding the report, i think it is possible in the future to see Australia being slowly bumped up on this chart. I hope that the Gillard government provides more funding for distribution so it can be put to good use by schools, and place Australia back on the map as a country that provides great education and with great results to prove it. Now it's time for us to create our own philosophies... Closing statement... Images sourced from:
Australian Teacher Magazine. (2012). Retrieved from http://ozteacher.com.au/html/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=986:sa-teachers-to-rally-at-ministers-office&catid=1:news&Itemid=69
Google Plus. (2012). Retrieved from https://plus.google.com/111169720059769998306/posts Images sourced from:
Carol Hawkins Studio. Retrieved from http://www.carolhawkins.com/illustration.shtml
Inmagine. (2000-2012). Retrieved from http://www.inmagine.com/searchterms/tiler.html
The Official Fairmont Private Schools Blog. (2012). Retrieved from http://blog.fairmontschools.com/2012_02_01_archive.html
The Sydney Morning Herald. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.smh.com.au/national/gonski-report-not-government-policy-insists-garrett-20120329-1w0jj.html
Topham Elementary School. (2012). Retrieved from https://mail.sd35.bc.ca/~Tophamweb/?OpenItemURL=S021C6922 Images sourced from:
Blogspot. (2010). Retrieved from http://gooomanjiblog.blogspot.com.au/2010_06_01_archive.html
Charles La Trobe College. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.charleslatrobecollege.vic.edu.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=45&Itemid=70&Name=Value
Chronicle News. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.chroniclelive.co.uk/north-east-news/evening-chronicle-news/2009/04/22/lessons-in-discipline-for-mum-and-dad-72703-23444550/
Edublogs. (2011). Retrieved from http://primarytech.global2.vic.edu.au/2011/10/04/team-teaching/
El Pais. (2011). Retrieved from http://blogs.elpais.com/trans-iberian/2011/09/20/
La Trobe Library Blog. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/blog/2012/05/
Lilac City Peds News. (2011). Retrieved from http://lcpeds.com/blog/page/3/
University of Houston. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.uhd.edu/about/reservations/classrooms.htm
Visualising Data. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.visualisingdata.com/index.php/2011/12/open-thread-data-visualisation-in-education/
Music: The Jackson 5- ABC. By Natasha Nicastri. 16136210.