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Transcript of old english
Old English is closely related to the Germanic Languages Old Norse and Gothic. People used the Germanic rune-alphabet to write they carved the runes into bones, stone, metal or wood. Evidence of Old English exists in parchments rolls and codices:
A lot of vocabulary of present day English especially words dealing with basic sentiments and ideas are inherited from Old English.
stan = stone
god = good
blood = blood
Of 30000 original Old English words, 15% survived change and are basic words and grammar i.e. man, sleep, sister, 1-10.
Vocabulary of Old English was based on Anglo-Saxon, with borrowing from Scandinavian languages and Latin.
Celtic words are largely gone, but survive in place and river names (Devon, Thames) and are thought to have influenced pronunciation
Catholic University Of Esmeraldas
Presenters: Luis Ronquillo - Maria Jose Zamora
Teacher: Javier Fernandez
Old English is the oldest form of English it is sometimes called Anglo-Saxon. It was Spoken in large parts of Bristish Isles
Indo - European Languages
Many linguists believe that the mixing of people speaking different languages from the same family like e.g. the Indo-European Family will more likely lead a new hybrid language rather than the usurpation of one of the language in favour of the other one. the history of the English language supports this theory
Anglo Saxon invasion
German, Frisian, Scandinavian Languages ,Dutch
Interesting Old English artefacts are poems on franks Casket and on the Ruthwell Cross
Important sources for research on Old English are: The Anglo Saxon Chronicle , The prose sermons of Aaelfric and Wulfston
Primary sources research are four books: The book found in Italy Junius manuscriptand the most famous one the Beowulf Manuscript.
Nominative = subject
Accusative = action
Genitive = possession
Instrumental = object/tool
Dative = indirect
The dawn of Old English
With the Norman invasion in 1066 Old English came to an end. The Normans spoke French an Indo-European, Romance language. Together with Old English it combined to form Middle English which slowly replaced Old English throughout the islands.
In 1066, the Normans conquered England and established a government that spoke French. This began the age of Middle English and added words like "guard", "inherit," and "parliament."
Smith, Jeremy J. 2009. Old English. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press Mitchell, Bruce/ Robinson, Fred C.2007(8th edition). A guide to Old English. Oxford: Blackwell Pub.
Freer word order than Modern English.
Nouns were masculine, feminine or neutral and came in numerous declensions
Verbs appeared before the subject and came in nine main conjugations (seven strong and two weak), each with numerous subtype
Beowulf was the first piece of literature written in Old English.
It’s a Germanic story of the 6th century and it’s about a hero and his adventures killing monsters (dragons).
The story was written as a poem with rhythm.
OLD ENGLISH ALPHABET
Was first written in anglo-saxon runes but moved to half-uncial script from the Latin Alphabet when introduced to Christianity
Has 24 letters in which 20 of them were directly taken from the Latin alphabet.
It is then replaced by insular script, which is basically the same but written in cursive.
Germanic tribes the northern parts of Germany invaded the British Isles in the fifth century AD. They spoke Proto-West Germanic another language in the large family of Indo-European languages the Celtics British that had a lot of influence from Romance latin together with Anglo-Saxon North-Sea dialects of Proto-West Germanic formed the Old English and slowly replaced British and another Celtic languages in large parts of england
Angles: South Danish peninsula
Jutes: Jutland (North part of Denmark)
Saxons: Coast of the North Sea
Yet the Almighty Father would not take away from Adam and from Eve, at once, all goodly things, though He withdrew His favour from them.
BORROWED FROM LATIN...
Religion = angel, bishop, chalice, martyr, Mass.
Anglo-saxon words = candle, cucumber, cheese, cup, elephant, fever, giant, history, kettle, kitchen, laurel, lentil, noon, oyster, paper, plant, purple, street, wine.
Old English was in usage for about 700 years from the 5th century to the 11th century
Over these yrs, the language was influenced by three different languages
Old English influenced during the viking invasion of the 9th century and 10th century
There was a large amount of Scandinavian words introduced into old English language
These words like place names and basic vocabulary and words that are related to Danelaw
Little Celtic influence on old English. There are only a few words known to be borrowed by Old English
However the progressive construction and analytic word order has appeared in old English
3 periods of influence that Latin had on old English was when
Before the angles and Saxons migrated to Britain from Denmark and northern Germany
Angles and Saxons were converted to Christianity Latin speaking priests became wide spread after the conversion to Christianity.
Norman conquest of 1066: in this conquest a number of Norman words were put into use in old English.
Old English is a language made from the many dialects and languages of the many different groups of people.
There are four main dialects of old English:
Who invaded the british isles in the fifth century A.D?
What was the first piece of literature written in Old English?
What Old English is ?
what Indo-European languages are?
How Old English is also called?
There are three phases in the evolution of the English language :
Old English (450 - 1150)
Middle English (1150 - 1500)
Modern English (1500 - present).
Before the Romans there were Celtic tribes on the British Isles. The Celtic Languages belong to the Indo European Languages and were spoken on the British Isles by the Celtic inhabitants.
belong to the Celtic language family
The Celts are not autochthonous of the British Isles They are an invading people spread throughout Europe.
It is presumed that the Celts existed since 2000 BC
The Celtic word originally meant "hero"
They lived from agriculture and livestock.
Their typical meal included boiled
pork, ox, cow, wild boar
Women were as warlike as their husbands
First testimonies of population
The more primitive inhabitants of the British Isles belonged to the stone age and left our power archaeological remains such as:
STONEHENGE that is 35 meters in diameter and whose stones reach 5 meters in height and width plus 2.
como manteca, perro, barro, barranco, otero…
Also other with little processing, such as:
camisa (camisia), cerveza (cerevisia), carpintero (carpentum), palangana (palancrana), jabón (sapon),
In Castilian have remained some Celtic words
Latin - French
The people living in Britain after the Roman colonization were called Romano-Britains
The Romans brought Latin to the British Isles. Combining it with the Celtic native languages people on the Isles created British.
The Latin language and Catholic religion had arrived with the Romans, but were renewed when missionaries arrived from Rome. "School" and "rose," among others, were added to the Old English.