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AH Baroque Period

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Sarah Horne

on 4 October 2016

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Transcript of AH Baroque Period

The Fugue
A fugue is a contrapuntal piece of music based on imitation.

It is usually written for 3 or 4 parts called voices.
Most fugues open with a short main theme called the subject which sounds successively in each voice/ part.
When each voice has entered the first section (exposition) is complete.
This is often followed by a connecting passage called an episode.
A fugue usually has three sections:
Voice 1
Voice 2
Voice 3
Subject (tonic)
Counter Subject
Answer (dominant)
Counter Subject
Counter Subject
Subject (tonic)
Counter Subject
Counter Subject
Here the voices quickly enter one after the other. This is known as Stretto.
The answer is the imitation of the subject. It is played a perfect 5th above the subject and is therefore in the dominant key.
Tonal Answer
if imitation of subject has the exact same intervals between notes.
If the imitation has a few alterations. All the intervals are not the same.
The Passacaglia

The Passacaglia originated in the early 17th Century. Later composers adopted this model, and by the nineteenth century the word came to mean a series of variations over a ground bass pattern, usually of a serious character.
The Concerto Grosso
A concerto Grosso is a large-scale composition for an orchestra plus a group of soloists.

It has Three sections:

Concertino - Group of soloists
Ripieno - The Orchestra
Basso Continuo - Bass line (Harpsichord and Cello)

As you watch the video listen out for the Imitation between the Sections.
Watch the Solo Flute Concerto
The fugue is a contrapuntal piece of music built up on a single theme. The subject is introduced at the beginning of the piece and recurs frequently in the music.
Answer the Questions on Bach's Fugue in G Minor
In music, ornaments are musical flourishes that are not necessary to carry the overall line of the melody , but serve instead to decorate.

The Appoggiatura is written out like:

But performed like:
Listen to the example. This first time is with the Appoggiatura, the second time without. Listen how the melody leans upon the first note.

The Turn
A turn is a short figure consisting of the note above the one indicated, the note itself, the note below the one indicated, and the note itself again. It is marked by a mirrored S-shape lying on its side above the staff.
The Mordent

The Acciacatura
The Trill

Vocal music was still very important during the Baroque Period. Types of work include:

The Oratorio - Recitative, Aria
The Mass

Listen to J.S. Bach's Aria da capo and answer the questions is your booklet.

Watch Vivaldi's Gloria - Listen out for the Antiphonal Sections
Vocal Music during the Baroque Period
The Chorale
A chorale is a melody to which a hymn is sung by a congregation in a German Protestant Church service. It usually has 4 vocal parts, Soprano, Alto, Tenor and Bass and is accompanied by an organ.
Watch the video from Bach's Chorale performed in a church with an orchestra, Soloists and Choir.
In Dulci Jubilo - J.S. Bach
Watch the video and follow the core in your booklet. Highlight the concepts
The Baroque Period

Complete the grid question in your booklet
The Hemiola was often used in Baroque music especially the dances. A rhythmic device giving the impression of a piece of music changing from duple (2) to triple (3) time, or vice versa. Sometimes placed at the end of a piece to act as a kind of Rallentando
Hemiola was then used in the rest of the Musical Periods. Listen to how Hemiola isd in a Ravel String Quartet
Full transcript