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Miguel A.

on 21 January 2012

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Transcript of Portugal

NATIONAL FLAG D. Afonso Henriques (1143-1185) D. Sancho I (1185-1211),
D. Afonso II (1211-1223),
D. Sancho III (1223-1248) D. Afonso III (1248-1279),
D. Dinis (1279-1325), D. Afonso IV (1325-1357),
D. Pedro (1357-1367), D. Fernando (1367-1383) D. João I (1385-1432),
D. Duarte (1433-1438), D. Afonso V (1438-1481) D. João II (1481-1495) D. Manuel I (1495-1521),
D. João III (1521-1557) D. Sebastião (1557-1578),
D. Henrique (1578-1580),
the Philippine Government (1580-1640) D. João IV (1640-1656), D. Afonso VI (1656-1683),
D. Pedro II (1683-1706), D. João V (1706-1750),
D. José (1750-1777), D. Maria I (1777-1816),
D. Pedro IV (1826), the Regencies (1826-1828),
D. Miguel I (1828-1834) D. João VI (1816-1826) D. Maria II (1834-1853), the Regency (1853-1855),
D. Pedro V (1855-1861), D. Luís (1861-1889),
D. Carlos (1889-1908), D. Manuel II (1908-1910) Religion Gastronomy Language Government Music Portuguese Language in the World Dargreen: native language.
Green: official and administrative language.
Light green: cultural or secondary language.
Yellow: portuguese-based creole.
Green square: portuguese speaking minorities. The Portuguese love their language and it is a source of great pride. Speaking Portuguese correctly is encouraged through TV programmes and Portuguese is overseen by a Lusofone Academy who carefully monitor the development of the language. Trying to protect it from Brazilian slang and English imports whilst keeping it alive and receptive to change. These days an International Lusophone Committee checks and updates Portuguese for 6 MILLION SPEAKERS WORLDWIDE. There is also an influence on how people speak in Portugal from some former Portuguese colonies which include Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Goa in India and Chinese Macau. Hugely popular BRAZILIAN soap operas and Brazilian immigration to Portugal means you hear "Tudo bem?" for "How are you?" rather than the traditional "Como esta?" British and American music and films plus an anglophile Computing and Marketing culture means you hear ENGLISH words woven in to Portuguese vocabulary. Literature Monuments
and Related Parque das Nações
(EXPO 98) Serra da Estrela Commemorating the 500th anniversary of Vasco de Gama's discovery of a sea route to India, Expo '98 brought Portugal it's first world's fair. Inspired by the success of Seville's Expo '92, Portugal chose an ocean theme. The Expo mascot was conceived by the Portuguese duo of painter António Modesto and sculptor Artur Moreira. It was selected from 309 entries. It is named Gil, after Portuguese navigator Gil Eanes. The name was chosen by high-school student José Luís Coelho, from 765 entries. Belém Tower Belém Tower is a fortified tower located in the Belém district of Lisbon, Portugal. It was built in the early 16th century in the Portuguese late Gothic style, the Manueline, to commemorate Vasco da Gama's expedition. This defensive, yet elegant construction has become one of the symbols of the city, a memorial to the Portuguese power during the Age of the Great Discoveries. In 1983 it was classified, together with the nearby Mosteiro dos Jerónimos, as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Originally, the Tower stood on a little island on the right side of the Tagus, surrounded by water. Opposite the beach at Restelo, with the progressive southward creeping of the shore over the years, it is now practically moored to the bank itself. It was dedicated to the patron saint of Lisbon, St Vincent. In 1580, when Lisbon was invaded by Spanish troops in the course of a struggle for the Portuguese throne, the Tower fought and surrendered to the Duke of Alba. In the following centuries the Tower was mainly used as a prison (with the underground cellars regularly flooding) and as a custom house. Indeed, given its height and lack of dissimulation in the landscape, some historians believe the Tower was mostly intended to serve as a customs outpost. Monument to the Discoveries
(Padrão dos Descobrimentos) The Tower was constructed between 1515 and 1521 by military architect Francisco de Arruda, who had already built several fortresses in Portuguese possessions in Morocco. The influence of the Moorish decorative art is manifest in delicate decorations of the arched windows and balconies and in the ribbed cupolas of the watch towers. Diogo de Boitaca, first architect of the nearby Monastery of the Jerónimos, probably also participated in decorating the building. The machicolation and the battlements are decorated with the rich sculptural ornamentations of the Manueline style. Jerónimos Monastery 25th April and
Vasco da Gama Bridges Oceanarium Soups Main Dishes Desserts Government Type: Republic; Parliamentary Democracy
Independence: 1143 (Kingdom of Portugal Recognized)
5 October 1910 (Republic Proclaimed)
National Holiday: Portugal Day , 10 June (1580)
Note - Also called Camões Day, the day that revered national poet Luís de Camões (1524-80) died.
Legal System: Based on civil law system; The Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation. Executive Branch:
Chief of State: President Anibal Cavaco Silva
Council of State (presidencial advisory body)
Head of Government: Prime Minister Pedro Passos Coelho
Council of Ministers. Major political parties:
Socialist Party (PS), Social Democratic Party (PSD); Portuguese Communist Party (PCP); Popular Party (CDS/PP); Left Bloc (BE); Green Party (PEV). Flag Description:
Two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation Administrative subdivisions:
18 Districts (Lisbon, Leiria, Santarem, Setubal, Beja, Faro, Evora, Portalegre, Castelo Branco, Guarda, Coimbra, Aveiro, Viseu, Braganca, Vila Real, Porto, Braga, Viana do Castelo); 2 Autonomous Island Regions (the Açores and Madeira). Curiosities Wines Guimarães Castle Óbidos Castle Alcobaça Monastery Batalha Monastery Pena National Palace Fado is Portugal’s main traditional music. Folk music and dancing, however, also remain as this country’sfundamental forms of musical expression.

There are two versions of the fado. One from Alfama and Mouraria, districts of Lisbon, and the other from Coimbra. The Lisbon fado is more personal and full of feeling, and the Coimbra fado is more academic and reflects that cities ancient university traditions.

The theme of any fado is usually love, albeit unrequited, but there are fados written in other subjects.
In the fado, the singer - the fadista - stands dressed in black in front of the audience, and behind the fadista are the musicians. When the fadista sings a hush falls over the room, and no food is served.
Those who love the fado have an almost worshipful relationship with it. Portugal is profoundly Roman Catholic. Approximately 97 percent of the population considered itself Roman Catholic - the highest percentage in Western Europe. Only about one-third of the population attend mass and take the sacraments regularly, but nearly all Portuguese wish to be baptized and married in the church and to receive its last rites. Church and State in Portugal

Portugal is Roman Catholic not only in a religious sense, but also socially and culturally. Although church and state were formally separated during the First Republic (1910-26), a separation reiterated in the constitution of 1976, the two still forming a seamless web in many areas of life. Catholic precepts historically undergird the society as well as politics. The traditional notions of authority, hierarchy, and accepting one's station in life all stemmed from Roman Catholic teachings.

Many Portuguese holidays and festivals have religious origins, and the country's moral and legal codes derive from Roman Catholic precepts. The educational and health care systems were long the church's preserve, and whenever a building, bridge, or highway was opened, it received the blessing of the clergy. Hence, although church and state are formally separated, absolute separation does not exist in practice. Pope Benedict XVI It's made of potatoes, fried onions and thinly sliced galician cabbage, served with slices of chouriço (cured spiced sausage). Chicken and rice soup. The name, based in a legend, means "Stone Soup". This soup is a very rich soup made of almost any vegetable or meat the chef can find. A The Stone Soup legend has several origins, with different versions in which the main character is a child, a traveller, a friar, a soldier, and the stone is sometimes a button, a piece of wood, and so on. However, common to all versions is the value of cooperation and resource-sharing, resources that put together generate richness – even if it is, in the case of a hungry village, a bowl of soup…

According to the legend, travellers arrive at a village bringing nothing except an empty bowl and go door to door asking the villagers to give them something to eat. The suspicious and hungry villagers, which have little to eat themselves, refuse to share their food with the travellers. Then, one of the travellers fills the bowl with water and drops a big stone inside. The villagers then place the bowl at the centre plaza of the village and begin to heat it. This leaves the villagers both puzzled and curious… One of them then asks the travellers, what they are doing. They answer, “We are preparing a delicious stone soup! It is almost ready. We are only missing some ingredients”. To help finish preparing the soup one of the villagers goes home to look for an onion, only a bit, to add to the soup… Other, also inquiring about the bowl, and after a similar response, also goes home to look for an ingredient that according to the travellers is missing for the soup to be ready. And this goes on and on for all the villagers that ask, until at the end a delicious and nutritious soup is ready, one that the travellers share with the whole village.

According to the Portuguese tradition, the situation described in the Stone Soup Legend took place in Almerim, in Portugal, and nowadays there are many restaurants in the region that serve “stone soup”. Salted and dried under the sun, it is said that there are 365 ways to prepare cod in Portugal. A traditional stew from Lisbon’s old districts, which is now found all over the country. A typical dish from Alentejo, which is now very common at Lisbon restaurants. This consists of pork fillets cooked with garlic, spices, lard and clams. This dish is also sometimes made with ham. Meaning sweet rice, is basically a rice pudding, generally covered with cinnamon. A sweet made from milk, eggs and covered in roasted sugar. Its name means cream milk. A kind of round custard tart in a flaky pastry case sprinkled with cinnamon and icing sugar. Best served warm, if possible buy in Belém at the factory of "Pastéis de Belém". Portugal is a big wine producer and offers a very broad range of both whites and reds, which should have something to please everyone.

A Portuguese speciality: Vinho Verde. The name “Green Wine” indicates that the wine is young and its fermentation short, giving a low-alcohol, light, sparkling, fruity and slightly acidic wine. The Portuguese love football with a passion, no other sport has the same appeal. Both sexes are enthusiastic fans and go to games. Benfica have the most members of any team in the world according to the Guinness Book of Records. Football They are the biggest team in the country in terms of fans and are supported fanatically from the Minho to the Algarve, well beyond Lisbon. Their strip is similar to Manchester United and they also have a glorious history. They scraped a title in 2005 but have often been incapable of stopping arch rivals Porto from winning the league. The real glory days of Benfica were in the years Eusebio played. He is now a Portuguese national hero but in 1960 Eusebio was an unknown Mocambican with a fantastic ability to score goals. With Eusebio up front, Benfica dominated Portuguese football, and won two European Cups. He was also one of the most elegant footballers to watch and Benfica still have a reputation for playing attractive football. Portugal Football - Sporting Lisbon - the most central lisbon team. Less well known in the world beyond Portugal, they can claim a major influence on the world stage. Through their youth development programme they have given the world many exciting players including Luis Figo and Cristian Ronaldo and Nani who have played for Real Madrid and Manchester United.
Jose Mourinho was also manager here and is remembered fondly by the fans. He started as translator for Bobby Robson who was also a successful Sporting manager! Portugal Football - Derby matches between Benfica and Sporting electrify Lisbon. There is a buzz and a nervousness in the preceding weeks. Demand for tickets is sky high and the city transport system is stretched to accommodate the fans. Those who can not get to the game arrange their schedule to ensure they are in front of the screen at the right time. Dulce Pontes has been around a long time. She was Born in Montijo, Portugal, in 1969, She was studying music before she was 10.
She really found her groove with Lagrimas. The album of fado style songs was hugely popular in Portugal.International recognition came after the song Canção do Mar was used in the Hollywood film Primal Fear with Richard Gere. The group had been around for almost ten years when they appeared in the film "Lisbon Story" (1994).
The first albums Os Dias da MadreDeus (1987) and Existir (1990) made them a leading band in Music in Portugal.There is Fado in the mix, but with classical elements, hints of Phillip Glass. Repetetive, Evocative, Mesmerising . The words are an important element in creation of the mood. Lisbon and the Sea are constant themes, their two last albums are dedicated to the city - Um Amor Infinito (2004)and Faluas do Tejo (2005) The name of Carlos Paredes is spoken in awe by Portuguese musicians and guitarists in particular. He changed the face of Music in Portugal forever. The greatest master of the Portuguese guitar to emerge in the 20th century. A great innovator he took the guitar from a background accompaniment to a great instrument in it's own right. Zeca Afonso was one of those rare artists who was able to enter a folk tradition and make it completely his own. His songs have a poetic integrity rare in modern artists. He could be sophisticated and innocent. The emotional range is remarkable. His challenging song Vampires expressed hatred for the leaders of the oppressive regime he lived under. His compassion suffuses his lullabies and songs for children. Amalia became an icon for the Portuguese. Her success in several films in the 40s and 50s consolidated her position and she became the first Fado singer to achieve success beyond the Portuguese speaking world. Beginning with Paris and London in 49 she went on to sing in New York and Tokyo during the 50s. Her last performance was fittingly when Lisbon became City of Culture in 1994. Her voice had everything, strength beauty and an incredible emotional power. The house where she lived and died in Rua Sao Bento near Estrella is an essential visit for Fado lovers. Carlos do Carmo, cosmopolitan and urbane, has Fado in his bones. Famous for his recordings in celebration of Lisbon in collaboration with the lyricist Ary dos Santos. His Fado was influenced by American singers of the Sinatra period and his use of double bass and strings caused controversy. Ana Moura, a smokey-toned young singer, is becoming the guardian of the Lisbon Fado canon, she famously impressed the Rolling Stones when they came to Lisbon.
Ana Moura sings "I belong to Fado, I am a Fadista" which in her voice is more than a musical statement, but a manifesto for life, signifying that Fado is not about personal stardom but is something deeper, unreducible, mysterious. Fate. Lisbon Fado. FADO Camane is the Prince of Fado. He is considered the most impressive interpreter presently in this music area, both by the public and the press: his voice, the way he sings and brings the melodies, his attitude towards the rhythm of Fado is unique. Born in Mozambique but raised in Portugal, singer Mariza became one of the most popular fado performers ever after releasing her debut album, called Fado Em Mim. The Dutch-based World Connection label signed her up, captivated by her highly stylized performances of fado (destiny in English) a Portuguese style based on different folk rhythms. The great Portuguese author José Saramago is Nobel Prize-winner. His greatest success was "Memorial do Convento" (published in English as "Baltasar and Blimunda"), which retraces the construction of Mafra's Palace-Convent. His other outstanding works include "The Stone Raft," "History of the Siege of Lisbon," and "The Gospel According to Jesus Christ." The 20th century was notable for lyric poetry. The major lyric poet was Fernando Pessoa, a complex and precursory genius whose work has been much published in English. He used different names, among them Ricardo Reis, Alvaro de Campos, Alberto Caeiro, and Bernardo Soares, enabling him to express himself in different styles. In the second half of the same century Portuguese literature gained international status. That's when the country's greatest writer, Luis Vaz de Camões wrote the epic "Os Lusiadas" ("The Lusiads") that glorified the achievements of the Portuguese people. It was written at the time of the Great Discoveries, relating the epic voyage of Vasco da Gama. Camões enjoyed little fame or fortune during his lifetime, but is now a national hero and his "The Lusiads" is considered the national epic. Guimaraes castle is probably the best known and mythical in Portugal as it represents the birth of the nation. In fact it is known as the “Cradle of the Nation” because it was here where D. Afonso Henriques was born and raised and where he planned the wars for the independence of the Portugal province during the 12th century, becoming the first Portuguese king. In 1129, D. Afonso Henriques proclaimed the independence of Portugal and several battles ensued, including that against his mother’s army who was against independence contrary to her initial belief. Despite Portugal’s independence being recognized in 1143, battles were fought with Spain until the 14th century due to the pretensions of Spain to dominate the Portuguese kingdom. With the advent of the artillery, Guimaraes castle became outdated and was abandoned for several centuries. It was used as a prison, barn, and quarry. In a total state of ruin, it was recovered during the 1930’s to become the symbol of nationality. Name Obidos probably derives from the Latin word "oppidum", which translates as "Fortress" or "fortified city". The presence of early an Roman settlement in the region has been confirmed by archaeological excavations, which have found ample evidence such as a forum, bathroom, etc. The existence of a Roman town is clear near the hill where the village is Obidos. King Dinis made a romantic gift to his wife - Queen Isabel de Aragon. King Dinis contributed to the romantic look of the Obidos Castle, complementing its architecture with marble and limestone blades. By 16th century several queens walk around the beautiful halls of Obidos Castle By virtue of its magnificent dimensions, the clarity of the architectural style, the beauty of the material used and the care with which it was built, the Cistercian Monastery of Santa Maria d'Alcobaça is a masterpiece of Gothic Cistercian art. It bears witness to the spread of an aesthetic style that developed in Burgundy at the time of St Bernard and to the survival of the ascetic ideal which characterized the order's early establishments such as Fontenay. The tombs of Dom Pedro and Dona Inês de Castro are among the most beautiful of Gothic funerary sculptures. The founding of the monastery is intimately linked with the beginnings of the Portuguese monarchy. When Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King Afonso I in 1139, he based his political reconquest on the Crusaders - cruelly present in Lisbon in 1147 - and on religious orders. Alcobaça was given to the Cistercians in recognition of the victory of Santarém (1152) with the understanding that they would colonize and work the surrounding lands. The White Monks were already well established by 1153, the year of the death of St Bernard of Clairvaux, Alcobaça was, thus, the last of the saint's 'offspring' during his lifetime. The stylistic quality of the sculptured ornaments, even with the restoration necessitated after Napoleon's troops mutilated them in 1810-11, is surpassed by the compelling symbolism of the iconography which evokes human destiny, death and the Christian hope of eternal life. Built around 1360, the tombs are the tangible sign of Peter I's mystical rehabilitation of Inês, assassinated at Coimbra on the orders of his father Afonso IV. On 14 August 1385, near to the site of the monastery at Batalha, an event took place that was to prove decisive for the consolidation of the Portuguese nation. D. Joao, the Master of Avis and the future King of Portugal, defeated the Castilian army at the Battle of Aljubarrota. This victory brought an end to a dynastic crisis that had dragged on since 1383. D. João dedicated the monastery to the Virgin Mary, whom he had called upon to beseech God to grant him victory. He gave the monastery to the Dominican Order. This was how a project came into being whose construction would last for almost two centuries and resulted in one of the most fascinating Gothic monuments in the Iberian Peninsula, in the opinion of many of its visitors.
Visitors are advised to begin by looking at the outside of the monument, observing its impressive shape and size, and its finely carved windows and pinnacles, giving the impression of stone lacework. On the east side, the powerful unfinished supports for the vaults of the chapels added by D. Duarte lend the monument a strange atmosphere. http://www.manorhouses.com/unesco/whbatalha.html Pena National Palace, in the historical town of Sintra and part of the Pena park, represents one of the best expressions in the world of 19th-century architectural Romanticism. On 7 July 2007, it was selected as one of the seven wonders of Portugal. It was the first Romantic palace in Europe, having been built about 30 years before the charismatic Schloss Neuschwanstein, in Bavaria.

The palace and park were designed and constructed as a single entity. From the palace, visitors look out on a mantle of greenery that covers over 200 hectares – Pena Park. This park offers wonderful walks, with numerous garden constructions. The building is the work of the architectural firm Cambridge Seven Associates under the direction of Peter Chermayeff, resembling an Aircraft carrier, and is built in the pier of an internal sea. It is one of the largest aquariums in the world, and has a large collection of marine species — birds, mammals, fishes, cnidaria and other marine organisms. The exhibition is arranged around four smaller aquaria, displaying the fauna and flora of the Atlantic, the Pacific, the Indian Ocean and of the Antarctic and a large central tank to exhibit species of the open ocean, from sharks and large groupers to tuna fish and small wrasses. On 27 November 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament, giving the largest share of his fortune to a series of prizes, the Nobel Prizes. As described in Nobel's will one part was dedicated to “the person who shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction”. Learn more about the Nobel Prize in Literature from 1901 to 2010. Fernando Pessoa Serra da Estrela (English: Mountain Range of the Star) is the highest mountain range in Portugal and includes mainland Portugal's highest point (the summit of the Pico mountain in the Portuguese Azores islands is higher, however). The range is at 1,993 m (6,539 ft) above mean sea level at its highest point. After the construction of the new Sporting stadium Alvalade XXI, Cristiano Ronaldo opened the new field with a match against Manchester United winning 3-1, which caught the attention of Sir Alex Ferguson Manchester United’s manager, who signed him up in 2003.

Today Cristiano Ronaldo plays for Real Madrid and the Portuguese national team with one of the hottest talents in the world. He has won many awards and has many achievements in his career. To name a few; his first club Honour, the FA Cup, 2008 his first UEFA Champions League, named the FIFPro World Player of the Year, FIFA World Player of the Year, Ballon d'or 2008, UEFA Club Footballer of the Year trophy, Golden Shoe award, Golden Ball award and on the 12th of January 2009 this top scorer was named FIFA World Player of the Year. "José Mário dos Santos Félix Mourinho", (born 26 January 1963) is a Portuguese football manager. He is the current manager of Italian Serie A team Inter Milan to whom he is contracted for the following three seasons.
The son of Portuguese goalkeeper Félix, Mourinho started out as a player but he was unsatisfied with his career and switched to management. After spells working as an assistant manager and a youth team coach in the early 1990s, he became an interpreter for Bobby Robson. Mourinho learned much from the veteran coach and worked with him at top Portuguese teams Sporting Clube de Portugal, FC Porto, and at Spanish giants FC Barcelona.
He began focusing on coaching and impressed with brief but successful managerial periods at S.L. Benfica and União de Leiria. He returned to Porto in 2002, this time as head coach, and soon became a force to be reckoned with, winning the Portuguese Liga, Cup of Portugal and UEFA Cup in 2003. Greater success followed in 2004 as Mourinho guided the team to the top of the league for a second time and won the highest honour in European club football, the UEFA Champions League.
Mourinho moved to Chelsea the following year and won two consecutive Premier League titles in 2005 and 2006, among other domestic honours. He often courted controversy for his outspokenness but his victories at Chelsea and Porto established him as one of the world's top football managers, well regarded by both his peers and the press. Additionally, he was named the world's best football manager by the International Federation of Football History and Statistics (IFFHS) for both the 2004-05 and 2005-06 seasons. After a fall out with the Chelsea hierarchy, he moved to Serie A, signing a three year contract with Inter in mid-2008. Within three months, he had won his first Italian honour, the Supercoppa Italiana, and completed his first season in Italy by winning the national Serie A title Over the years, F.C. Porto grew as the conquests were becoming bigger and as its purposes were becoming greater. The symbol of a region astounded the country and surprised the world. The 1980’s were probably the most memorable decade. In 1987 and 1988, F.C. Porto conquered the European Cup, the Intercontinental Cup and the European Supercup – an outstanding deed, a proof of the success of a special approach to sports. Few years later, F.C. Porto achieved a goal that no other club in Portugal dared to accomplish. Five championships in a row was a remarkable act, another great page in the clubs’ history.

Nowadays, the world changed and Portugal too has evolved. Sports reality is now more complex, but F.C. Porto remains at the top. The club remained winning and the dynamics persisted. F.C. Porto is now represented all over the country and all over the world. Full name: Futebol Clube do Porto
Nickname(s): Dragões (The Dragons) / Azuis e Brancos (Blue and Whites)
Founded: September 28, 1893
Ground: Estádio do Dragão (Dragão Stadium)
Capacity: 50,399
Chairman: Jorge Nuno Pinto da Costa Cristiano Ronaldo was born on the 5th of February 1985 in Funchal, Madeira Island.
His first club was Andorinha and he didn’t have to play much to be noticed. Since he was a little boy all he wanted was to play football, indeed he spent much of his childhood doing precisely that.

In 1995 he began his career as a youth player for the CD Nacional club. In his first season he already started feeling confidant, winning his first award as footballer. His successes with the team led to a move to Lisbon to play for the Sporting Club of Portugal. In 2002, when he was 17 years of age, he scored 3 goals for Sporting and at this point he was already considered their best player.
 Built in 1892 in a Moorish style with small cupolas atop its four main towers, Campo Pequeno's bullring (Praça de Touros do Campo Pequeno) accommodates up to 9,000 spectators.

It was loosely based on the Madrid bullring of Las Ventas, and bullfights take place here on Thursdays in season. During the rest of the year it is occasionally used for concerts and other shows, such as a circus.

After being closed for many years for extensive renovation, it reopened in 2006 with a new retractable ceiling and a shopping mall, restaurants, cinemas, and a supermarket. Parking space for 1200 cars is also available. Campo Pequeno Bullring Electrico 28 (tram 28) is the vintage yellow tram that plies various routes in Lisbon. It goes through all over the city center, crossing many touristic attractions, while navigating along winding and very narrow streets to town up at sea level.

The tram is a hop-on, hop-off service and there are more than 30 stops you can choose from. The starting point, however, is downtown in Praca Martim Moniz and the end is uptown in Campo de Ourique (Prazeres) Tram 28 A pilgrim was leaving Barcelos on his way to Santiago de Compostela when he was accused of stealing silver from the landowner. For his alleged crime, he was sentenced to death by hanging.
He prayed to Our Lady and St James, the patron Saint for Protection, that justice be done. As a final effort to save himself, the prisoner pleaded for a meeting with he judge. The judge was about to tuck into his roast rooster, when the pilgrim said to the judge that as proof of his innocence, the rooster would stand up on the plate and crow.
The judge ignored the pilgrim’s claim and pushed aside his meal. But, as the pilgrim was hanged, the rooster jumped up and crowed. Realising his mistake, the judge rushed to the gallows and found that the pilgrim had miraculously survived due to a loose knot.
According to the legend, the pilgrim returned many years later to carve the Cruzeiro do Senhor do Galo which is now housed in the Museu Arqueologico in Barcelos.
Of course there are many variations and embellishments to this Portuguese legend, but the Rooster from Barcelos has become one of the national symbols of Portugal and is said to represent faith, justice and good luck. Most Portuguese motorways are operated by private companies and thus tolls are charged for using them. The largest operator, BRISA (Auto-estradas de Portugal S.A) has introduced a system of automatic payment for tolls – “Via Verde“.

Via Verde users need to have a Multibanco card (or a credit card that works with the Multibanco system). Once you have joined the scheme, you will receive a vehicle identification unit that glues to the windscreen. When the vehicle drives through the Via Verde toll lane, detectors recognise the vehicle and the system automatically charges the toll to the Multibanco card. Some users gain a discount through using the Via Verde scheme. Via Verde may also be used at many carparks and galp petrol stations. Portugal’s most famous wine is Port, sweet and syrupy, which can be either red or white, and is drunk as an aperitif or after a meal. The Port we know today has been made since the 1830s. Extras Portugal Beaches King Dinis didn't believe the accusations made against the Templars, and when the Pope dissolved the Templars, he decided to form a new order, to which the Templar holdings would be given. The Order of Christ was founded in 1319. It is unclear whether many Templars continued in the new order. Some writers seem to think that the Templars just continued under a new name, whereas others think that the Order of Christ was a new formation. He was the most important Portuguese playwright and yet also the royal goldsmith.
In 1502, he performed Auto da Visitação (Monólogo do Vaqueiro) before the queen just as she was about to give birth, and this marked the beginning of a fertile career as a regular and brilliant writer of comedies. His work represents the coming together of the mediaeval inheritance (especially in the different genres and poetic rhythms that he favoured - systematically using the popular metre in both morality plays and farces) and the Renaissance spirit, which was a critical exercise in its denunciation of both institutional irregularities and society’s vices. Gil Vicente
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