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Timeline of Intelligence
Transcript of Timeline of Intelligence
Timeline of Intelligence
Eugenics Theory, 1890
Mental and physical features are inherited
A genius is someone with an ability that is exceptionally high and inborn
People with excellent physical abilities are better adapted for survival, and thus highly intelligent
Galton conducted a systematic study to measure cognitive and behavioral differences among individuals
Simon-Binet Intelligence Scale, 1905
Binet assumed all children follow the same course of intellectual development, but some develop more rapidly
Mental age- age typical of a given level of performance
Binet developed reasoning and problem solving questions to predict school achievement
Test was used to identify French school children needing special attention
Peter Salovey and John Mayer
Primary Mental Abilities, 1938
Thurstone gave 56 different tests to people and mathematically identified seven clusters of primary mental abilities: word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and memory.
Thurstone believed that intelligence is the capacity for abstraction, an inhibitory process.
He did not rank his subjects based on a single scale of general aptitude
The Wechsler Intelligence Scales,1939,1949,1969
Wechsler believed intelligence is the capacity for an individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment.
He created what is now the most widely used intelligence test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), for adolescents and adults, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), for school-age children, and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI), for preschool children.
Wechsler based his measures on deviation IQs or how spread out the scores were from the mean of 100.
These scales help indicate possible learning disabilities when a child's performance IQ is very different from his/her verbal score.
His scales yield not only an overall intelligence score, but also separate scores for verbal comprehension, working memory, and processing speed.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence, 1985
Sternberg defined intelligence as one's skill in achieving whatever one may want to attain in life by capitalizing on strengths and correcting weaknesses.
The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence distinguishes three intelligences:
Analytical (academic problem-solving) intelligence- assessed by intelligence tests, which present well-defined problems having a single right answer
Creative intelligence- demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas
Practical intelligence- often required for everyday tasks, which usually have multiple solutions
To be successful, according to Sternberg, one must make the best use of their analytical, creative, and practical intelligence, while also compensating for weaknesses.
Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence, 1963-1971
Fluid Intelligence-the ability to solve new problems, use logic in new situations, and identify patterns
involves thinking and reasoning abstractly and solving problems
considered independent of learning, experience, and education
Crystallized Intelligence- knowledge that comes from past experience and prior knowledge
as we age and accumulate new knowledge, our crystallized intelligence becomes stronger
Emotional Intelligence, 1990
Emotional intelligence is labeled as the ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions.
Emotionally intelligent people are self-aware
Mayer, Salovey, and David Caruso have developed an emotional intelligence test to assess both overall emotional intelligence and its four components- the ability to perceive emotions, to understand emotions, to manage emotions, and to use emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking.
General Factor of Intelligence, G factor, 1904
General intelligence (g) is present in varying degrees in different human abilities, and underlies all intelligent behavior
G factor controls specific mental abilities, and therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
Spearmen used factor analysis to examine mental aptitude tests
Spearmen Defined intelligence as a general cognitive ability that can be measured and numerically expressed
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test, 1916
Revision of Binet's original intelligence test
Standardized Binet's test by using American participants
Test scores reflect people's innate mental abilities, and their education/ familiarity with the culture assumed by the test
Receive an IQ score that is your level of intelligence
Terman supported the use of intelligence tests for Eugenics
Intelligent Quotient (IQ)
Theory of Multiple Intelligence, 1983
Criticized the single factor theory
Observed savants, individuals who are considered mentally retarded, but have a specific exceptional skill (calculating, music, art)
Theory of multiple intelligence recognized 8 factors of intelligence
Recognized that different skills and abilities are valued in different cultures, and people have different ways of thinking and learning
8 factors of Intelligence
visual spatial intelligence