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Computer History Project
Transcript of Computer History Project
By: Raylene Hartl
Computers date back to the 17th century.
The first computing device was the abacus. An abacus is when there are beads on a wire to do calculations.
The first device able to perform arithmetic computation was invented around 1840 by Charles Babbage
This invention was the beginning of the computer.
In the invention there was a storage unit, an arithmetic unit, a control unit, input and output devices.
First Generation Computers
First generation computers were made in 1940 to 1958.
These computers were very large, the size of a room, and very expensive.
Punched cards and magnetic tape was used for inputting data and storage. The output was a printout.
A punched card is a piece of stiff paper that contains digital information, represented by the presence or absence of holes in certain places on the card.
A punched card
The vacuum tubes were the main memory. Vacuum tubes were also the amplifiers and switches of the computer. The made weak signals stronger and could stop and start the flow of energy instantly.
Even though these computers were very large, they could only perform one function at a time.
Some examples of first generation computers are the ENIAC, EDSAC, and UNIVAC.
The Atansoff-Berry Computer (ABC) was made in 1937 and was one of the first electronic computing devices.
The device was successfully tested in 1942.
This device was only designed to solve linear equations, so it was non-programmable.
The storage mechanism, a paper card reader and writer, was unreliable.
The work on the ABC was discontinued when WWII started.
This device brought in the important elements of computing such as binary arithmetic and electronic switching elements.
Due to its unchangeable stored program, it was very different from modern computers.
The UNIVAC was made by John Presper Eckart and John Mauchly.
The design was complete in 1948.
In 1951 the first UNIVAC model was complete and it cost close to a million dollars.
It was used for the census in America, the first one was delivered to the bureau to use.
The input was punched cards and magnetic tape and the output was a printout.
John Presper Eckert and John Mauchly
Together the two invented the first general-purpose electrical digital computer, the ENIAC. They also invented the UNIVAC.
Eckart and Mauchly were both electrical engineers.
Both went to the Moore School for Electrical Engineering.
Mauchly took a course that Eckert was teaching.
After graduation, they began to reasearch the design for a better computer.
They then built the ENIAC, it was complete in 1946.
They left the school and started their own business, the Eckart-Mauchly Computer Corporation.
They built the UNIVAC next, the first computer to be produces commercially in the U.S.
Second Generation Computers
These computers were made between 1959 to 1965.
Transistors replaced the vacuum tubes. The two have the same functions, but transistors do faster operations with less heat.
A higher lever of programming was developed for these computers.
An example would be the IBM 1401.
The memory of second generation computers were transistors and magnetic tape.
Transistors vs Vacuum Tubes
Transistors were invented in 1947 by John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain.
Vacuum tubes and transistors have the same functions.
Transistors were faster, more reliable, smaller, and cheaper than vacuum tubes.
One transistor was equal to forty vacuum tubes.
The transistor was very cheap to produce, unlike the vacuum tube, due to materials like silicon.
The transistors gave off almost no heat while the vacuum tube released much more heat.
Transistors also conducted electricity much faster.
This was a new beginning for computers.
A vacuum tube
The IBM 1401 was released in 1959.
The computer used transistors, not vacuum tubes.
The computer was most commonly used in small businesses.
The IBM 1401 used the punched card system. Punched cards could be read quickly, had a magnetic input and output, had faster printing, stored information, and stored arithmetic and logical ability .
Over 10,000 of the computers were sold in the mid-1960s.
In 1961 2000 of the IBM 1401 computers were installed in the US.
In mid-1960s nearly half of the computers worldwide were the 1401 type.
Third Generation Computers
They were made between 1965 to 1970.
Integrated circuits were created and were very small.
Now with integrated circuits, thousands of transistors could fit onto a very small space.
Robert Noyce and Jack Kilby independently discovered the integrated circuits.
Being able to put many transistors onto a single chip increased the power of the computer and lowered the cost. It also reduced the computers' size to a small filing cabinet.
These circuits could carry out many instructions in a very short amount of time. They were also able to run more than one program at a time.
Magnetic disks were introduced at this time. This solved the magnetic tape's problems such as slowness and sequential access to data. It also had a vast internal storage.
Example: IBM 360
It was released in 1964 and was produced between 1965 and 1978.
It was made to cover all kinds of operations and applications; big to small, commercial to scientific.
This smaller system was one of the most successful computers designs in history.
You could upgrade the IBM 360 without major change in the computer.
This was the first look into microcode technology for IBM's computers.
The IBM 360 influenced the future computer designs.
Fourth Generation Computers
These are the personal computers, which have made from 1971 to the present.
Large scale integrated circuits were used allowing millions of components to be fit onto one small chip.
This reduced the size and price while increasing the speed and reliability.
This allowed everyday user benefits.
This was the beginning of networking and sharing data, the LAN and WAN.
The World Wide Web was invented during this time.
This was also the beginning of the microprocessor.
An example of a microprocessor is the Intel-4004. It was released 1971 and was the second CPU. It was also the first commercial microprocessor.
The microprocessor was invented by Ted Hoff.
It is a multipurpose, programmable device that is the size of a pencil eraser.
It was first made for calculators but then was used in computers.
The microprocessor is one chip that can do all of the processing of a full-scale computer.
Due to its small size, electricity could travel through the microprocessor faster, thus having it do more and faster calculations.
It has the functions of a computer's central processing unit with only a single or very few integrated circuits.
The microprocessor has a digital information input, it then processes the information according to the instructions stored in the memory, then provides a digital output.
The microprocessor helped in the creation of personal computers.
The Apple II was introduced in 1977.
The computer was mainly designed by Steve Wozniak.
It was one of the first highly successful microprocessor computers and personal computers.
The Apple II was a major advancement over the Apple I.
It launched Apple into a successful business.
Many different models of the Apple II were produced. They include the Apple II, Apple II Plus, Apple II Europlus, Apple II J-Plus, Apple IIe, Apple IIc, Apple IIGS, Apple IIc Plus, and Apple IIe Card.
The entered programs were saved and loaded onto a cassette tape.
In 1992 it had 16-bit processing capabilities, mouse-driven graphical user interface, graphics and sound capabilities that exceeded the original.
By 1993, five to six million of the Apple II computers had been produced.
The Apple IIGS was sold until the end of 1992 while the Apple IIe, the last in production, sold until it was discontinued in 1993.
Fifth Generation Computers
These computers are now and into the future.
It is the advancement in artificial intelligence.
This will allow computers to imitate human intelligence.
There will be speech activation with the ability to respond to natural language, like that of Siri or Bluetooth.
These artificial intelligences will be able to carry out instructions that require low human intelligence.
Artificial intelligence will continue to advance as computers develop.
Future of Computers
Computers will continue to grow and develop into the future.
They will continue to become smaller and smaller.
Houses, schools, buildings, etc. may become one big computer; able to clean, make food, do chores, etc. and make our lives easier.
They will continue to be part of our everyday lives, and become even more so.
Businesses and jobs will also be using computers more and more into the future, helping to make jobs easier.
The advancement in artificial intelligence will also help make our lives easier by have robots replace us in certain jobs.
Medicines, work efficiency, science, daily life, etc. will all improve with the advancements in computers and technology.