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History of American Education
Transcript of History of American Education
The Public School Movement
The common-school movement was popular during 1820 to 1850. It was called a "common" school because all children were welcome to attend no matter what social or economic class they came from. The common-school movement lead to the creation of normal schools and the first one opened in 1823. It also made teaching elementary school a possible career path for women. 71% of rural teachers were women by 1900.
Development of Secondary Schools
Benjamin Franklin's Academy paved the way for other academies that began to open. These academies replaced the colonial grammar schools.
Colleges and Universities
Colleges were originally established during the colonial period because of the Protestant belief that well-educated ministers were needed.
Colleges such as Yale, William and Mary, Princeton, and King's College had been established by 1754.
Thomas Jefferson's University of Virginia was the ideal model for modern state universities.
The Morrill Act of 1862 ensured that each state received 30,000 acres of public land for each senator and representative in Congress. The purpose of the profits that came from the land was to be used to support state colleges for agricultural and mechanical education.
The Servicemen's Readjustment Act, which is also know as the G.I. Bill, was enacted in 1944. It was established to help returning military personnel returning from World War II with funds for tuition, books, and living expenses. Colleges and Universities saw an rise of enrollment between 1944 and 1951 when 7,800,000 veterans used the Bill's assistance.
The Colonial Period
The Early National Period
The Move to Diversity Within the Classroom
American Education has been influenced throughout the years since the colonial period. We as educators owe appreciation to those who came before us to build and shape the educational field. Without them, who knows where American Education would be today.
New England Colonies
Puritan schools developed in the New England colonies and followed the beliefs of John Calvin. These schools focused on teaching children reading, writing, and religion. Puritan teachers often used corporal punishment and discipline within their classrooms.
In 1636, Harvard College was founded. Young men could seek admission to Harvard College upon the completion of Latin grammar school.
The Massachusetts General Court passed the first education law in 1642. It stated that parents or guardians must make sure that their children learn to read, understand the principles of religion and learn the commonwealth's laws.
The "Old Deluder Satan" Act was passed in 1647. It stated that a teacher must be appointed to teach reading and writing in a town of fifty or more families.
The hornbook was used to teach the alphabet, syllables, as well as the Lord's Prayer. The New England Primer was used by older children to learn the Westminister catechism, the Ten Commandments and other religious material.
Latin Grammar Schools were used to prepare upper-class boys for college. The schools focused mainly on teaching Latin and Greek authors and focused little on mathematics and science.
Middle Atlantic Colonies
Dutch parochial schools were established in the Middle Atlantic Colonies. These schools taught reading, writing and religion.
In Pennsylvania, William Penn founded a colony that became known as the Quakers.
Quaker schools were established and open to all children no matter what race. Quaker schools taught the usual reading, arithmetic, and religion. These schools even offered vocational training, crafts, and agriculture. Quaker teachers didn't believe in using corporal punishment and used persuasion instead to influence children.
Private venture schools became established near ports. They were private for-profit schools that taught navigation, surveying, book keeping, Spanish, French, and geography.
Private tutors were used to educate children of wealthy white plantation owners. Some wealthy families sent their children to private schools that were located in towns such as Williamsburg or Charleston.
During this time slaves that were working on plantations weren't allowed to learn to read or write. However, some learned how to read and write in secret.
In 1785, Congress created one of the first federal educational legislation. The Northwest Ordinance of 1785 required an area of land of each thirty-six-square-mile town to be used for education. This legislation laid the foundation for land grants that would be established in the years to come.
In 1751, Benjamin Franklin founded the Academy of Philadelphia. The school curriculum focused on English grammar, composition, rhetoric, and public speaking replaced the usual language studies of Greek and Latin. Mathematics, history, biography and utilitarian skills such as carpentry and engraving were taught as well. Academies established after Franklin's began following his educational structure.
During the Virginia legislature in 1779, Thomas Jefferson proposed his educational philosophy in his "Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge." Although the bill didn't pass, Jefferson raised awareness of issues such as: state-established public schools, dividing Virginia's counties into more districts, free children able to attend elementary school, and the establishment of twenty grammar schools throughout the state.
Benjamin Rush believed that church and state should come together. He urged for Christian principles to be taught to children in school and in college. Rush wanted schools to offer a "faith-based" education.
Schoolmaster of the Republic
Noah Webster was known as the "schoolmaster of the republic." He pushed for the United States to not only be culturally independent, but to also have its own "language as well as government." He even came up with an American version of the English language. In 1751, Webster published the American Spelling Book. His American Dictionary was later published in 1828.
Horace Mann as a big supporter of the common schools and believed that public education was fundamental for society.
He constructed the philosophy that public schools should be:
a statewide system funded by taxes
governed by elected school boards
employed by trained teachers
separate from church control
Catharine Beecher was an educator and founded the Hartford Female Seminary in Hartford, Connecticut. Beecher was in charge of the Hartford Female Seminary from 1823-1831. She later established the Western Female Institute to create an idea of a network of institutions that would prepare women to teach.
Beecher believed that teaching opened the doors for educated women who were wanting an useful career especially when opportunities for women were limited. Beecher was a key figure in helping to prepare women for the educational field.
Sometimes districts would only have a single one-room school for the children to attend. Some districts even had to combine because there wasn't enough children. Around the 1870s, most schoolhouses were constructed with wood-frames and painted red or white. Most rooms included wood-burning stoves to provide heat, double desks, and cloak rooms. The ages within the schoolhouse could range from preschool age to high school. Students were taught multiple subjects suchs as history, arithmetic, grammar, and spelling. During this time the teachers had to also take on many roles such as the disciplinarian, the janitor, and secretary, like some teachers today.
William Holmes McGuffey began writing the McGuffey Readers after textbooks began being demanded after the opening of schools. The McGuffey Readers focused on the topics of diligence, hard work, punctuality, civility, heroism, and patriotism. Between 1836 and 1920, more than 120 million copies of the books were bought.
In 1821, the first United States public high school opened in Boston. During this same year, Emma Willard opened the Troy Female Seminary in New York. Willard's school along with other academies for women offered science, mathematics, art, music, language, domestic science programs, and teacher-preparation.
Important Dates of the High School Movement
The Kalamazoo-Michigan Case
This 1874 case stated that school districts could collect taxes to help support public high schools.
The Committee of Ten
The National Education Association established the Committee of Ten in 1892. This committee was created to decided the purpose of high schools. The committee defined that high schools should be taught the same way for both college and predatory students. They also came to the conclusion that elementary school would consist of eight years and secondary education would consist for four years.
The Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
The Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916 denied children and adolescents employment. The goal of this act was to get children and adolescents to attend school instead of entering the work force.
Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education
In the Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education, NEA's Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education acted on the socioeconomic issues in the high school population in 1918. The commission decided to reorganized the high school and suggest that it provides differentiated curricula to meet agricultural, commercial, industrial, domestic, as well as college preparatory needs.
The Establishment of Junior High and Middle School
The Beginning of Educational Technology
Junior high school was created in the 1920s and 1930s. It was designed as a transition for children who were between elementary and high school. These junior highs were two or three year institutions.
Middle schools came about in the 1960s. They were also created as a transition for children between elementary and high school. Middle schools consisted of sixth through eighth grades.
The first educational technology that was used within the classroom was radio and motion pictures during the 1930s.
In 1957, Alexander J. Stoddard created the National Program in the Use of Television in the Schools, as well as the Midwest Program on Airborne Television Instruction in 1961. The Midwest Program on Airborne Television Instruction used telecasting as a way to present lessons to schools.
Other technology such as computer-assisted instruction and educational videos were seen in schools around the 1970s.
Tim Berners-Lee with the help of Robert Cailliau created the World Wide Web prototype in 1990.
With the help of these educational technology pioneers, we have the benefit of using more advanced technology in our classrooms today.
Congress established the Freedmen's Bureau in 1865 to help African Americans in the South with economic and educational support. The Bureau opened schools that followed the New England common-school curriculum.
Booker T. Washington
W.E.B Du Bois co-founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Along with the NAACP, Du Bois were active in the journey to desegregate public schools. Du Bois also was an editor for the NAACP's major publication, The Crisis.
Booker T. Washington founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama and was named head of the institute. Tuskegee Institute is now known as Tuskegee University.
Brown vs. Board of Education
This court case declared that the segregation of schools was unconstitutional.
No Child Left Behind
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was a reauthorizing of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. It ensures that all children, no matter what race, background, or learning ability all have the same opportunity to learn within the classroom.
Ornstein, A. C., Levine, D. U., & Gutek, G. L. (2011). Foundations of Education. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Retrieved June 12, 2014