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Transcript of Newspaper
How did the Industrial Revolution affect the agricultural industry
Sir Isaac Newton
Mechanisation had no real effect on agriculture, machines were devised but they were too expensive to use for the couple of days they would be needed for and too heavy for the wet fields.
In West Yorkshire many of those that were involved in the wool and worsted trades were also farmers or agricultural labourers who used the textile trade to supplement their income from farm work.
In East Lancashire dairy farming became big business in conjunction with industrialization, towns like Blackburn, Burnley and Bolton were only sparsely populated before industrialization, so there was not the same demand for farm wares before industrialization took place.
How Newton's Theories Came About
Legend has it that Sir Isaac Newton was sitting under an apple tree when an apple fell and hit him on the head causing him to come up with the idea of gravity. Actually the apple missed him and made a soft thud on the ground, but that was enough to attract Newton's attention. The apple's fall triggered the important realization that a force, gravity, attracts all bodies in the universe to each other, pulling apples to the ground and holding the Moon and the planets in their orbits. In 1729, about two years after his death, a book containing Newton's theories was published. In it, Newton showed how an artificial satellite could be launched from the earth. He pictured the earth with a high mountain and a cannon on top of the mountain firing shots parallel to the ground. Each time the cannon was fired, more gunpowder was used and the shot went farther before striking the ground. Because the earth is round, the shots curved around it. According to Newton's theory, with enough gunpowder, a shot could eventually go fast enough to circle the earth completely and come back to the mountain top.
Newton's Three laws
Newton's first law of motion states that an object remains at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. Therefore without any forces acting on it a satellite launched into motion would continue to travel at constant velocity. Newton's second law states that an unbalanced force acting on an object causes an acceleration, this law is represented by the equation F = ma. Newton's third law of motion states that an object experiences a force because it is interacting with some other object.
Monday, January 4, 1760
Vol XIII, No. 157
Age Of Reason of Age of Enlightenment
Age Of Reason
Light future or a dark one???
The Age Of Reason was a cultural movement of intellectuals beginning in late 17th-century Europe emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition.Its purpose was to reform society using reason, to challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and to advance knowledge through the scientific method. It promoted scientific thought, skepticism, and intellectual interchange.The Enlightenment was a revolution in human thought. This new way of thinking was that rational thought begins with clearly stated principles, uses correct logic to arrive at conclusions, tests the conclusions against evidence, and then revises the principles in the light of the evidence.
Enlightenment thinkers opposed superstition. Some Enlightenment thinkers collaborated with Enlightened despots, absolutist rulers who attempted to forcibly put some of the new ideas about government into practice. The ideas of the Enlightenment continue to exert significant influence on the culture, politics, and governments of the Western world.
Robots, have been a big topic for humans quite a time now, but what do we really know about them?Is it really like living in a paradise?Well I will tell you this from my perspective I think a future with robots wouldn't be a pleasant one, why you may ask, well I know everyone will disagree because mist of the people would say "oh they would be great they would've done my homework and took my dog for a walk and make me lunch while I just relax." well that's a big NO NO. Because if robots would do everything for you you would become lazy and illiterate over time, also if they would do jobs for us, again no skill needed. And if they would be used to work in hospital's it would remove that skill needed for a human to work in hospital's, also over time people would become illiterate as I said before, because the robots would do everything and there wouldn't be any point of kids going to school then.I mean I have just been saying the disadvantages, but some of the advantages could be that if we could balance the robots good enough the future with them in that case wouldn't be as bad as I said, for example if they would make some sort of system that humans would do work and not just robots. That's my opinion course, everyone has it's opinion. I think a future with robots would be a bad except if it would be balanced.
The Journal Orbit
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How could people improve their health living in industrial towns/cities?
"Residential living conditions were close to the factories, which also had poorly built tenements with no sewers/piped water or sanitation. They were also overcrowded with several families in one building and poor ventilation. The results were high disease, high crime rates and high death rates. Responses to the poor living conditions included housing and sanitation codes; even suburbanization could not protect the rich from epidemics of diseases like the flu and diphtheria. Cities put in sewer systems, began trash collecting and hired police and fire services. Also, anyone who could afford to, moved away form the center of the city to high spots or the outskirts of the city. This limited their ability to pay for space or commute in the late 19th century." according to this article, the residential living conditions were close to factories which means that its wasn't exactly great living in a residential home.They also had poorly built tenements with no sewers which means that they should of made a underground piped water.They were also overcrowded with several families in one building and poor ventilation which means that they could of built more houses which would remove lots of overcrowded houses and less high disease, crime rates and death rates.They could of built more hospital's and clinic's so it would remove a lot more deaths form diseases.
Question number one: What were the working conditions like in the Industrial Revolution?
Response to question number one:This idea is like today's sweatshops.Unions rose out of this age. people worked 100 hour weeks in unsafe conditions next to open fires, huge churning machines, no breaks, overcrowding, not allowed to sit. no ventilation no heat on cold days no holidays...think of everything that is not allowed today-that's what you had back then.They needed to do 16 hour work days,low wages,especially if YOU were a woman,child and/or immigrant from Eastern Europe.
Question number two: What are the effects of this on the children?
Response to question number two:(This question was answered by Dr. Samuel Smith, when he was interview)Up to twelve or thirteen years of age, the bones are so soft that they will bend in any direction. The foot is formed of an arch of bones of a wedge-like shape. These arches have to sustain the whole weight of the body. I am now frequently in the habit of seeing cases in which this arch has given way. Long continued standing has also a very injurious effect upon the ankles. But the principle effects which I have seen produced in this way have been upon the knees. By long continued standing the knees become so weak that they turn inwards, producing that deformity which is called "knock-knees" and I have sometimes seen it so striking, that the individual has actually lost twelve inches of his height by it.
Question number three:(This question was answered by Dr. Samuel Smith, when he was interview)In what manner you think that a legislative enactment could be made beneficial for the prevention of accidents from machinery?
Response to question number three:I have no doubt that a great number of accidents might be prevented by some act to compel the owners of mills to have such horizontal and upright shafts as revolve with great rapidity, in situations, where children are placed near them, sheathed and covered with square boxes of wood, which may be done at a very trifling expense, and which I understand is often neglected.
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Impact of the industrial revolution on the countryside
During the Industrial Revolution, the social structure of society changed dramatically. Before the Revolution most people lived in small villages, working either in agriculture or as skilled craftsmen. They lived and often worked as a family, doing everything by hand. In fact, three quarters of Britain's population lived in the countryside, and farming was the predominant occupation (Porter). With the advent of industrialization, however, everything changed. The new enclosure laws—which required that all grazing grounds be fenced in at the owner's expense—had left many poor farmers bankrupt and unemployed, and machines capable of huge outputs made small hand weavers redundant. As a result, there were many people who were forced to work at the new factories. This required them to move to towns and cities so that they could be close to their new jobs. It also meant that they made less money for working longer hours. Add to this the higher living expenses due to urbanization, and one can easily see that many families' resources would be extremely stretched.
Working in new industrial cities had an effect on people’s lives outside of the factories as well. As workers migrated from the country to the city, their lives and the lives of their families were utterly and permanently transformed.
For many skilled workers, the quality of life decreased a great deal in the first 60 years of the Industrial Revolution. Skilled weavers, for example, lived well in pre-industrial society as a kind of middle class. They tended their own gardens, worked on textiles in their homes or small shops, and raised farm animals. They were their own bosses. One contemporary observer noted, “their dwelling and small gardens clean and neat, —all the family well clad, —the men with each a watch in their pocket, and the women dressed in their own fancy, —the Church crowded to excess every Sunday, —every house well furnished with a clock in elegant mahogany or fancy case. . . . Their little cottages seemed happy and contented. . . . it was seldom that a weaver appealed to the parish for a relief. . . . peace and content sat upon the weaver’s brow”. But, after the Industrial Revolution, the living conditions for skilled weavers significantly deteriorated. They could no longer live at their own pace or supplement their income with gardening, spinning, or communal harvesting. For skilled workers, quality of life took a sharp downturn: “A quarter [neighborhood] once remarkable for its neatness and order; I remembered their whitewashed houses, and their little flower gardens, and the decent appearance they made with their families at markets, or at public worship. These houses were now a mass of filth and misery“.
Child labor was, unfortunately, integral to the first factories, mines, and mills in England. In textile mills, as new power looms and spinning mules took the place of skilled workers, factory owners used cheap, unskilled labor to decrease the cost of production. And, child labor was the cheapest labor of all. Some of these machines were so easy to operate that a small child could perform the simple, repetitive tasks. Some maintenance tasks, such as squeezing into tight spaces, could be performed more easily by children than adults. And, children did not try to join workers unions or go on strike. Best of all, they were paid 1/10 of what men were paid. It’s not surprising, then, that children were heavily employed in the first factories in history. In 1789, in Richard Arkwright’s new spinning factory, two-thirds of 1,150 factory workers were children.