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Emergent and Early Literacy: Reading Development and Perform
Transcript of Emergent and Early Literacy: Reading Development and Perform
From birth, infants listen to sounds of speech and that of their native language.
Fast mapping – is the child’s ability to map the meaning of a new word onto a referent after hearing the word used on context just once.
Holophrase – is a single word used to represent a phrase sentence; typical of the first stage of language acquisition.
Vocabulary explosion – is the rapid addition of new words to a toddler’s vocabulary which usually occurs late in the second year.
Using this index, stages of language development have been identified (Cobb, 2001):
1. Children speak in two-word sentences.
2. Children use rules to inflect words, indicating plurality and tense.
3. Children can use rules to transpose meaning from one form of sentence to another.
4. Children’s sentences become increasingly complex in the fourth and fifth stages.
Teale and Sulzby (1989 as cited by Tompkins, 2002) paint a portrait of young children as literacy learners with these characteristics:
1. learning the functions of literacy through observation and participation in real-life situations in where reading and writing are used;
2. developing reading and writing abilities concurrently and interrelatedly through experiences in reading and writing; and
3. constructing understanding of reading and writing through engagement with literacy materials.
According to Juel (1991 as cited by Tompkins, 2002) children move through three stages as they learn to read, namely: emergent reading, beginning reading, and fluent reading.
Children may communicate single words not only to name things but also to communicate more complex thoughts. This is usually called holophrase – the first stage of language acquisition.
Another strategy used in learning new words is bootstrapping – which is using their knowledge of word class and syntactic clues to learn the meaning of new words.
Literacy – is a process that begins well before the elementary grades and continues into adulthood and even throughout life.
Students also grow in their ability to stand back and reflect on language. The ability to talk about concepts of language is called metalinguistics and children’s ability to think metalinguistically is developed by their experiences with reading and writing (Templeton and Spivey, 1980 as cited by Tompkins, 2002).
In emergent reading, the purpose of communicative print is understood by children. They start to notice environmental print, can dictate stories for the teacher to record, and even read predictable books after they have memorized the pattern.
It is in the beginning reading stage that children learn phoneme-grapheme correspondences and start to decode words.
In the fluent reading stage, children have learned to read, decode unfamiliar words and recognize words automatically. The fluent stage is reached in the third grade. Once this stage is reached, children are able to make use of their cognitive energy on comprehension. This accomplishment is significant because beginning in fourth grade, children read more information books and content area textbooks as reading becomes a learning tool (Tompkins, 2002).