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NATIVE AMERICAN BOARDING SCHOOLS
Transcript of NATIVE AMERICAN BOARDING SCHOOLS
I. The Beginning
presented by: Kristi Graham
II. The Students
III. Effects of Boarding Schools
IV. Present Day
Thank you !
1878 First Indian Boarding School was founded by Captain Richard H. Pratt.
It was named the Carlisle Indian School.
It was built in an abandoned military post in Pennsylvania.
"KILL THE INDIAN - SAVE THE MAN" ~ ~Captain Richard H. Pratt
Captain Richard H. Pratt
in: Rushford, New York
Captain Pratt originally He placed Native Americans who he suspected of killing white people into a prison school.
His idea was to "kill the Indian, not the man" by enforcing euro-american culture into the Native Americans.
As a result, children lost touch with their family's, culture and traditions.
He is a sky diving champion, can fly a plane, taught himself to swim and dive
Television Series: Into the West
In this video, it hollywoods slightly romanticized yet still detailed version of what it was like for young indian children, that had just been ripped from their family's, to just arrive at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School.
Although I'm sure it was much more gruesome in real life, this is a very touching depiction of what it must have been like.
"Essentially, this is what happens any time one people assert they know what is good for another," said Kevin Gover, director of the National Museum of the American Indian at the Smithsonian Institution. "It is tragic and inevitable."
In 2000, when he was the assistant secretary of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Gover apologized to Native Americans for historic abuses by the BIA, including brutalizing their children "emotionally, psychologically, physically and spiritually" in boarding schools
Genevieve Williams Story
Attended the Tulalip school, Cushman Indian Hospital and St. Georges Mission School near Tacoma.
By the time she left the schools for good at age 14, she didn't recognize her own mother. The two never did bond.
Later, she didn't know how to nurture her own children. Her husband had been physically abused in a Canadian residential school and instilled in their children his deep suspicion of white people.
"That's how we grew up," said their daughter, Leslie Lopez.
After many prayers, Lopez decided to judge people by their actions instead of their race and to teach her children to do the same.
"It's taken a long time. I try hard," she said. "It's getting easier."
Williams now lives on the reservation with Lopez, with whom she's grown close. She encourages the grandkids to learn the Lushootseed language, and she sometimes watches language classes on the tribe's closed-circuit TV network. But the only word she knows, she says, sounds like "paw-sted" — meaning white person.
To this day, questions haunt her — such as why she was sent to a TB hospital when no doctor ever found evidence that she had the disease. Sometimes she looks back and cries. "I know I missed out on a lot ... "
But like others of her generation, she doesn't want to be cast as a victim. At 85, she's proud to be an elder. "I am Native American," she says. "I survived."
EFFECTS OF BOARDING SCHOOLS
A chance for Assimilation?
Increasingly, the damage from that early abuse, loneliness and lack of love is being seen as a major factor in ills that plague tribes today, passed from one generation to the next and manifesting in high rates of poverty, substance abuse, domestic violence, depression and suicide.
All things Indian — dress, language and beliefs — were forbidden. Affection was rare, punishment often severe. Some students were raped, many tried to run away and unknown numbers died.
Efforts range from the national Boarding School Healing Project to a $3 million health study by the University of Washington and the Tulalip Tribes to widespread efforts to revive tribal culture.
Portrait by Branwell Brontë, 1834
After tribes were moved to reservations, the federal government assumed primary responsibility for educating native children. It forcibly placed the children in boarding schools and stripped them of their culture in an attempt to assimilate them into mainstream society.
: Federal government opens first off-reservation boarding school at Carlisle, Pa.
Late 1800s: Other schools built across the West. Bureau of Indian Affairs runs them or subsidizes church-run mission schools that already educate many Indian children.
1900: Education system grows over next two decades, promoting "dignity of labor" and vocational training.
1928: Meriam Report, commissioned by Interior Department, condemns schools' deficient diet, overcrowded dorms, substandard medical service and overworking of students. Senate committee reports systematic kidnapping of Indian children by school officials.
1930s: Forced assimilation of tribal children officially ends as policy (if not as practice) in 1933. Reforms bring teacher training, and schools start becoming more open to tribal culture, though corporal punishment continues for decades until ended in mainstream education. Some boarding schools close.
Post World War II: Another policy shift — so-called termination policy — seeks to eliminate reservations and move Indians to cities for job training. Emphasis on boarding schools renewed, and tribal children again removed from homes and sent away to schools.
1960s: Kennedy administration repudiates termination.
New federal laws give tribes civil and religious rights and control of children's education. Many schools close and remaining ones promote tribal culture.
Today: Ninety percent of Native-American children attend public schools. The Bureau of Indian Education funds 66 residential programs that enroll some 10,000 students.
Indian Child Welfare Act
The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) of 1978 is Federal law that governs the removal and out-of-home placement of American Indian children. The law was enacted after recognition by the Federal Government that American Indian children were being removed from their homes and communities at a much higher rate than non-Native children. ICWA established standards for the placement of Indian children in foster and adoptive homes and enabled Tribes and families to be involved in child welfare cases.
Rehabilitation & Relearning
Old "lost" Traditions
In downtown Seattle, the Seattle Indian Health Board has started a program for urban elders.
At twice-weekly gatherings, they learn lost skills such as bead work. Some went to boarding schools, and occasionally they talk about having been beaten for "talking Indian." It's a time "to honor good feelings or put to rest the bad so you can move on," said Chris Chastain, elder specialist.
Just west of Marysville, Washington, parenting classes are being taught on the Tulalip Reservation.
As part of a six-week course, a small group of adults met for a recent class, which began with an account of how the boarding schools of old might be contributing to their struggles today.
Boarding School Healing Project
As of 2008, Native American students are more than twice as likely as white students to both drop out of school and be expelled.
On average, only 7 out of every 100 Native American kindergarteners graduate from college.
Native Americans typically perform at two or three grade levels behind their peers.
Alcohol-related deaths are ten times higher than the national average, alcoholism on some reservations range from 50% to 80%, teen suicide and drug abuse (especially meth and marijuana) are higher on reservations compared to the national average.
Type II diabetes (adult-onset) epidemic that affects more than 12% of Indian adults, three times the national average.
FORBIDDEN & ABUSED
HOW THE PAST STILL AFFECTS THE FUTURE
The status of American Indian achievement has its roots in history. While there has been some collaboration in certain communities, federal policies did not create national support for the effective education of Native American Indians.
Many tribes have maintained a large portion of their culture but not without having to face detrimental legislation aimed to kill their language, culture, religious practices and even the people themselves.
The U.S. government holds major responsibility in the high failure and drop-out rate of Native American youth in today's schools because the problematic relationship between the government and the tribes has not been resolved.
April 23, 1924
in: San Fransisco, California
Native American boarding schools in the United States were seen as the means for the government to achieve assimilation of American Indians, which it believed was the best way for them to live in the changing society. By having the children in boarding schools, they could be educated together in majority culture. The boarding schools separated American Indians from non-Indian students.
THE LASTING EFFECTS
The national Boarding School Healing Project was started in South Dakota in 2002 by Indians from various states.
Calloway, Colin G. First Peoples: A Documentary survey of American Indian History. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2012
From 2004-2006, 48 New Mexico classrooms in 11 Tribal Head Start programs participated in the initiative. It used PBS' award-winning children's literacy series, "Between the Lions," and specific resources designed by and for American Indians. Drastic changes took place among the students in the participating Head Start programs. Children at risk for reading failure dropped from 39% to 12%. Children scoring above average in vital literacy measures rose from 23% to 64%.