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Transcript of TOK
How do the ways of knowing interplay in shaping public opinion about issues of national security?
- Three main kinds of reasoning: Induction, Deduction & Informal reasoning
- In common: generalizations
- Induction forms generalizations
use of syllogisms
- “All generalizations are false – including this one.” – Henry David Thoreau
Obstacle to knowledge
Influences all other ways of knowing
No objective reasoning possible
Strong emotive language
Richard van de Lagemaat: Theory of Knowledge for the IB Diploma
Stanley Cavell: The Claim of Reason. Wittgenstein, Skepticism, Morality and Tragedy
Bill Brewer: Perception and Reason
Tobias Jaecker: Antisemitische Verschwörungstheorien nach dem 11. September
Eileen Dombrowski, Lena Rotenberg,
Mimi Bick: Theory of Knowledge. Course Companion
- Language has great power over the way we learn and the things we know
- Most knowledge is spread via communication
- Vocabulary and rules of grammar need to be clear in order to avoid misunderstanding
- Propaganda using Persuasive language
- Selective use of facts
for objectivity the principle of empiricism should be a requirement
a school of philosophy that claims that all knowledge is ultimately based on personal perceptual experience.
you saw something, therefore you believe it
we are not sure of our perspective and do not perceive everything
Chinese proverb: “two thirds of what we see is behind our eyes“
Eye - Witness Testimony
we reconstruct what we saw
“Every closed eye
is not sleeping,
and every open
eye is not seeing.“
How would a person with
have seen 9/11?
What would he have felt?
Agnosia is the loss of
the ability to recognize
objects, faces, voices,
"Many people died"
"Death" has different Connotations
for different people
-> Used by Media
- Problems of Meaning lead to misunderstandings
Many people passed away
as a result of the 9/11 terrorist attacks
2996 people died
as a result of the 9/11
Different meanings for different people
The ways of knowing
I N F L U E N C E - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
"Whether intentional or not, miscommunication can have serious consequences. Double-meaning statements, mixed signals, misinterpretation of nonverbal communication, or even a lack of communication, which makes people assume rather than know things, can lead to violent acts."
- Great impact on how the public thinks about 9/11
-When emotions are involved, the other ways of can not work objectively anymore
- Knowledge has to be used carefully in order to not distort truth
- Think critically and form your own opinion!
- Fallacious reasoning (mistake in reasoning)
- “post hoc ergo propter hoc” (“after this, therefore on account of this”)
- “ad ignorantiam” (claiming something is true because it cannot be proven to be false)
- “false dilemma” (assuming that only two alternatives exist)
- “confirmation bias” (only consider evidence that supports belief) (prejudiced)
= more or less than actual number
= peaceful connotation
= more or less than "many"
= direct, harsh connotation