Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

TOK

null
by

Jo Me

on 5 March 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of TOK

Thank you for your attention!
How do the ways of knowing interplay in shaping public opinion about issues of national security?
e
f
g
h
J
k
ideas!
innovation
business
m
7
Emotion:
Perception
Language
Reason
Conclusion
Public Opinion
Emotion
Biased perception
Fallacious reasoning
Emotive Language
Strong Emotions
Language
- Three main kinds of reasoning: Induction, Deduction & Informal reasoning

- In common: generalizations

- Induction forms generalizations
use of syllogisms

- “All generalizations are false – including this one.” – Henry David Thoreau

Reason
Obstacle to knowledge
Influences all other ways of knowing
Perception:
Reason:
Language:
Emotional Coloring
No objective reasoning possible
Strong emotive language
Richard van de Lagemaat: Theory of Knowledge for the IB Diploma
Stanley Cavell: The Claim of Reason. Wittgenstein, Skepticism, Morality and Tragedy
Bill Brewer: Perception and Reason
Tobias Jaecker: Antisemitische Verschwörungstheorien nach dem 11. September
http://neboliterature.mrkdevelopment.com.au/language/text-types/Persuasive-Language
Eileen Dombrowski, Lena Rotenberg,
Mimi Bick: Theory of Knowledge. Course Companion
http://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/bias-and-perception-how-it-affects-our-judgment-in-decision-making-and-analysis
http://www.statisticbrain.com/911-death-statistics/
http://www.ehow.com/facts_7154810_can-miscommunication-cause-violence_.html
- Language has great power over the way we learn and the things we know
- Most knowledge is spread via communication
- Vocabulary and rules of grammar need to be clear in order to avoid misunderstanding
Active misleading:
- Propaganda using Persuasive language
- Selective use of facts
- Imperatives


for objectivity the principle of empiricism should be a requirement
a school of philosophy that claims that all knowledge is ultimately based on personal perceptual experience.
you saw something, therefore you believe it
Perception
we are not sure of our perspective and do not perceive everything
Chinese proverb: “two thirds of what we see is behind our eyes“
Eye - Witness Testimony
we reconstruct what we saw
Independent Testimony
“Every closed eye
is not sleeping,
and every open
eye is not seeing.“
How would a person with
visual agnosia
have seen 9/11?
What would he have felt?
Agnosia is the loss of
the ability to recognize
objects, faces, voices,
or places.
Vagueness:
"Many people died"

Secondary Meaning:
"Death" has different Connotations
for different people
-> Used by Media
Passive Misleading
- Problems of Meaning lead to misunderstandings
1)
Many people passed away
as a result of the 9/11 terrorist attacks

2)
2996 people died
as a result of the 9/11
terrorist attacks

Different meanings for different people
SOURCES
HOW
The ways of knowing
I N F L U E N C E - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
"Whether intentional or not, miscommunication can have serious consequences. Double-meaning statements, mixed signals, misinterpretation of nonverbal communication, or even a lack of communication, which makes people assume rather than know things, can lead to violent acts."
e-how facts
Johann Mecke
David freudenthal
Lukas Baumheier
Frederik Junker
- Great impact on how the public thinks about 9/11

-When emotions are involved, the other ways of can not work objectively anymore

- Knowledge has to be used carefully in order to not distort truth

- Think critically and form your own opinion!
- Fallacious reasoning (mistake in reasoning)

- “post hoc ergo propter hoc” (“after this, therefore on account of this”)

- “ad ignorantiam” (claiming something is true because it cannot be proven to be false)

- “false dilemma” (assuming that only two alternatives exist)

- “confirmation bias” (only consider evidence that supports belief) (prejudiced)


1:
Many
= more or less than actual number

Passed away
= peaceful connotation

2:
2996
= more or less than "many"

Died
= direct, harsh connotation
Full transcript