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Water

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Alexander Hutchinson

on 3 October 2014

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Transcript of Water


By: Alexander Hutchinson, Autumn Raethka, Bailey Rost, and Melissa Stein.
Water Scarcity
In Colorado


Used for over 150 years in North America
Higher price
Equipped with filters/detectors
Ductile iron - strong and easily formed
DI- Not known to fatigue over years or really be brittle at all
DI- Most prone to pitting erosion (76%-78% of failures accounted to it)
Colorado soil has a resistivity (ohm-cm) of 3,000-5,000, meaning mildly corrosive
PE- Concentration of corrosion in one particular place due to holes or pits in the ground
Environmental
- Lower water levels
- Invasive species
- Unknown effects on local wildlife
- Vegetation damage during construction


Political
Eminent domain- Chances of water to be revoked.
Seniority order.
Main uses
Agriculture
Public use
Our Problem
So, What's New?
For example:

- The rise of Sumerian civilization in Southern Mesopotamia was dependent upon irrigation to produce crop surpluses that could then be traded for building materials.

- Ancient Chinese civilization's irrigation schemes generated surpluses to support craftsmen, armies, kings and emperors, along with extensive canals both between cities and providing a network of transport links within the great ancient cities


-
Pipelines
Our Solution
Canals from three different reservoirs
Goes into Grand Junction
Dillion, Blue Mesa, and Chatfeild.
Each canal moving 200,000 acre feet.
100 feet wide 25 to 30 feet deep.
Political
Engineering
Environmental
Bibliography
Canals
Used more frequently in Ancient times
Move more water at a time
Can be build to any size.
Easier to expand if needed
Re-enforced concrete erodes slower than piping.
Cost efficient
Easier to Maintain
Cheaper to do.
Fast and easy installation
Easier to sustain
Hold a spot in the seniority ranking.
Less harm to the environment
Easier to monitor animals living in the reservoirs.
Helps with invasive species.
Population growth, energy development, climate change, and 11 years of consecutive drought have stretched water storage supplies to near limit in almost every part of the CO River basin.
In the past decade of drought we have gulped our way through half the water in storage such that our reservoir system today is almost half empty.
It is predicted that by 2050 the Colorado River flow will decline by 18% due to a projected increase in warming of 1.7 degrees Celsius. This will decline the average CO Basin water storage by 32%
The east side of the continental divide get's significantly less water than the west with a meager average of 15 inches annually.
Proposal:
Build canals throughout the western side of Colorado .
Canals: Basically human-made channels for water, otherwise, man made rivers.
- Exposed to the environment can damage to the environment but due to how open it is, wildlife benefits.
- Traditional canal is dug into the ground in a grove shape along a long appointed path, expensive to make and maintain (if that’s even possible), and people will soon become too dependent on the water. But by far the biggest issue or advantage with canals is the fact that they do not need to be maintained as they really are just a man made river

Alternate Proposal
: Build pipelines out of ductile iron (extremely strong, bendable)
- Costs more than the canals, but over time, their use potentially outweighs their original cost.
- More reliable than canals,last longer, and it is ten times easier to maintain.
- Monitor any issues with filtering systems.
- Can be built above the ground, suspended using pillar or columns or anything of the sort, therefore reducing the environmental impact they may have.

Today, about two-thirds of the water flowing in the Colorado River and its tributaries is used for irrigation, the other one-third supplies urban areas, provides water to riparian vegetation, or evaporates from the River's multi-tiered reservoir system.
The question we've been presented with is this: How should Colorado deal with the management and use of water in our state?
"Concrete Price Considerations- Cost of Concrete." Concrete Prices. Concrete Network, 2014. Web. 02 Oct. 2014.

Grantham, Joseph. Synopsis of Colorado Water Law. N.p.: Dick Wolfe, 2011. PDF.

Richter, Brian. "The High Costs of Free Water." News Watch. N.p., 29 Aug. 2012. Web. 01 Oct. 2014.

Rodriguez, Maya. "Colorado Water." Colorado Water. 9 News, 2014. Web. 02 Oct. 2014.

"A Water Crisis. So What's New? Just Take a Look at the Ancient World." History Today. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2014. <http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2012/09/water-crisis-so-what%E2%80%99s-new-just-take-look-ancient-world>.

Dimick, Dennis. "If You Think the Water Crisis Can't Get Worse, Wait Until the Aquifers Are Drained." National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 19 Aug. 2014. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/08/140819-groundwater-california-drought-aquifers-hidden-crisis/>.

Gerken, James. "Indus Valley Civilization Collapse Fueled By Climate Change, Researchers Say." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 29 May 2012. Web. 3 Oct. 2014. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/29/indus-valley-civilization-climate-change_n_1553088.html>.

"Winter Issue of The Bridge on Sustainable Water Resources." News Rss. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <https://www.nae.edu/Publications/Bridge/55183/55

http://www.coloradowater.org/Colorado%20Water%20Facts/#CO Riv

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Colorado#Regions


Wines, Michael. "Colorado River Drought Forces a Painful Reckoning for States." The New York Times. The New York Times, 5 Jan. 2014. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/06/us/colorado-river-drought-forces-a-painful-reckoning-for-states.html?_r=0>.
"Water in Colorado - A Brief History | The Water Information Program." Water in Colorado - A Brief History | The Water Information Program. The Water Information Program, n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2014.

Hassan, Fekri A. WATER MANAGEMENT AND EARLY CIVILIZATIONS: FROM COOPERATION TO CONFLICT. London, England: Institute of Archeology UCL, 2012. PDF.


"Water Flow." in Colorado. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2014. <http://www.visitgrandcounty.com/discover-grand-county/water/water-flow.html>.

Historically the rise and fall of ancient civilizations, though as complex and multi-factored as they were, all had the common factor of water:
- how it was managed
- how it provided a source of power
- the economic, social and political consequences of droughts and floods
Now facing a 21st century water crisis one question we might ask is what can we learn from the past? Does the ancient world have any lessons for how we should seek to manage our water supply today?
THREE BIG
LESSONS:
- Population size (Rome)
- Greed (Indus River Valley)
- Wasting Water (General)
- Dealing with climate change (Indus)

Where Colorado comes in on all this:
- Wasting Water (Evaporating Reservoirs)
At the present time to combat the scarcity Colorado has:
- Established enforcement fines on illegal pumping

- Beginning in the 1920s, Western states began divvying up the Colorado’s water, building dams and diverting the flow hundreds of miles

- Aquifers with stored ground water

- Price on water so people are not inclined to waste it
The solution will potentially lower the waste of water by circulating the water better around the state so the western side doesn't have a surplus/ are less likely to waste water and the eastern side will have more water. Also, because we're racing against evaporation to use the water if it's moving and being used instead of sitting in a reservoir we're wasting less/using what we have more efficiently.

Land owners, farmers and ranchers should not be too effected by the canals/or pipelines since we intend to build them roughly around the same areas as highways and streets so there won't be anything cutting through the land that didn't already have something there.

There is no reason to change the price of water for our plan unless it's to come up with funds to build either pipelines or canals.
Thank You For Your Time!
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