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Factors Affecting Climate LOWERN

Factors Affecting Climate
by

Joanna Romani

on 21 November 2016

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Transcript of Factors Affecting Climate LOWERN

Factors Affecting Climate
L.O.W.E.R.N.
The further away from the equator,
the colder the temperature
Latitude
Ocean Currents
Winds spread heat energy
from the equator to the poles
Winds and Air Masses
Elevation
Relief
Near Large Bodies
of Water
As latitude increases north/south the temperature decreases.

Since the earth is oval, the sun's rays are more direct near the equator--They pass through less air/atmosphere and are therefore more concentrated and hotter.

Latitude is a key and strong factor affecting climate as long as other factors are not at play.
In the summer the northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun so we have longer days and more energy.
In the winter, the northern hemisphere is tilted away from the sun so we have shorter days and less energy.
Cold ocean currents
cool the land next to them.
Warm ocean currents
warm the land next to them.
Labrador Current:
cools Newfoundland and Labrador

Gulf Stream:
brings warm, moist air to Halifax

North Pacific Current:
brings warm, moist air to Vancouver
Examples:
These are called WESTERLIES
Most winds in Canada travel from west to east
air masses that come from over water are moist
air masses that come from over land are dry
air masses that come from equatorial areas are warm
air masses that come from the poles are cool
An air mass is a large volume of air that has the climate conditions of the area where it was formed.

If it originates over the ocean, it will contain moisture; therefore moisture will be released in coastal areas.

If it originates over land, it will be dry.

travels at 300-500 km/hr, 9-18 km above the earth's surface
Jet Stream
a fast-moving wind high in the atmosphere
Allows warm, moist air to come to Canada in summer
Moved south in the winter by the cold, Polar air mass from the Arctic
W
O
E
R
Mountain ranges cause precipitation and affect the flow of air masses
N
In the winter, the ocean cools off more slowly than land resulting in a milder winter.

And in the summer, the ocean warms up more slowly resulting in a cooler summer.
For example, Vancouver
Maritime Climate
This is known as a
L
In the summer, land that is far away from the ocean heats up quickly.
Conversely, in the winter, land that is far away from the ocean cools off quickly.
Continental Climate
This is called a
For example, the Saskatchewan
For example, the Coast Mountains
NOTES
NOTES
HUGE influence on the climate of an area.

The temperature of a current affect the temperature of the air passing over it.

The coast of BC has a yearly average temperature of 9⁰C and Newfoundland 5⁰C

Cold Currents meeting with warm currents create damp, foggy weather in Coastal Atlantic areas of Canada
NOTES
TEMPERATURE
Tropical: Hot- formed near the tropics
Polar: Cold- formed between 55⁰N and 66⁰N
Arctic: Very cold- formed over the arctic
MOISTURE
Maritime: Wet- formed over water
Continental: Dry- formed over land
NOTES
Temperature drops the higher you get
As the air rises, it expands because there is less air pressure
As the air expands, it loses heat

The ground will absorb heat and release it to warm the air above
the farther you go from the ground, the cooler it is
The rate of cooling will depend on the amount of water vapour in the air
If the air is saturated it won't cool as fast
Also, the higher you go, the less vegetation you will find.
NOTES
Relief is the difference in elevation of the earth's surface.

Air cools down after being forced upward when it hits the Rockies.

Clouds form and moisture is released in the
winward
side of the mountain.

Air becomes dry in the
leeward
side of the mountain; therefore, valleys on this side are VERY DRY!

Air rises over trees and captures moisture, the process repeats itself until it reaches the prairies.
By the time it reaches the prairies, it is warm and dry.
winward
leeward
NOTES
Large bodies of water such as lakes and oceans influence Climate.

In the summer, these areas of water keep the land cooler and in the winter warmer.

Maritime temperatures are moderated by the water body.

This is known as the moderating effect.
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