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Cells! An introduction to plant and animal cells

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Miss Schwinge

on 31 August 2015

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Transcript of Cells! An introduction to plant and animal cells

Nucleolus
Nucleus
Nucleus
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Ribosomes
Mitochondria
Cell Wall
Vacuole
Cell Membrane
Golgi Apparatus
Chloroplast
R
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b
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s
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Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Mitochondria
Cell Wall
Vacuole
Cell Membrane
Chloroplast
Golgi
Apparatus
An Introduction to Plant Cells
An onion cell viewed through a microscope
Cell Organelles
The cell wall is the outermost layer in plant cells. It is stiff, rigid, and made of cellulose. It provides protection, structure, and support for the plant so it can grow tall.
The job of the cell membrane is to enclose, protect and support the cell. It has pores, and is semipermeable, which means that it allows the movement of certain substances into and out of the cell.
The nucleus is

the control center of the cell.

It is the largest organelle, and contains the DNA of the cell.
The
nucleolus
is found within the nucleus and is in charge of making ribosomes.
Mitochondria are

bean-shaped structures that are the cell's powerhouse
.
They break down sugars and release energy for use by the cell.

The vacuole is a round, fluid-filled sac that stores food, water, and other materials (such as wastes) for use by the cell.

Chloroplasts are oval-shaped structures

containing a green pigment called chlorophyll. They use the sun's energy to make food for the plant through a process called photosynthesis.
The Golgi Apparatus

is responsible for sorting and correctly shipping the proteins produced in the ER.
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Ribosomes are miniature "protein factories," and there are thousands of them in each cell. The stationary type are embedded in rough ER, while the mobile type are found all over the cell
The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is fused onto the nuclear membrane, and there are two types.

Rough ER has ribosomes embedded in its surface and transports things to the Golgi. Smooth ER has

no ribosomes, makes lipids and proteins, and is in charge of

drug detoxification.
Nucleus
Cell Wall
Nucleus
Ribosomes
Cytosol
Cell Membrane
Mitochondria
Golgi Apparatus
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Centrioles
Vacuole
Lysosome
Cytosol
An Introduction to Animal Cells
Nucleolus
Nucleus
R
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s
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m
e
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Mitochondria
Vacuoles
Cell
Membrane
Golgi
Apparatus
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Centrioles
Centrioles are found only in animal cells and come into action when the cells divide, helping with the organization of chromosomes
Lysosomes are the

digestive site for proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. They transport undigested material to cell membrane for removal.

The cytosol is

the jellylike material part of the cytoplasm outside the cell nucleus in which all the organelles are located
.
Lysosomes
Cytosol
Cytosol
Cells!
purple
= both plant and animal
green
= plant only
pink
= animal only
Before we can begin talking about the parts of plant and animal cells, we first need to discuss the two classifications of cells:

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Similarities
1) They are both enclosed by plasma membranes
2) They both contain ribosomes
3) They both have DNA
4) They are both filled with cytoplasm
Differences
1.) Eukaryotic cells are much larger and more complex
.
2) Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus
3.) Prokaryotes do not have membrane bound organelles
4.) Eukaryotes have many thread-like chromosomes while prokaryotes only have a singular, circular chromosome
Vesicles help store and transport products produced by the cell.
Their name literally means "little vessel"
The cytoskeleton is

made up of filaments and tubules. It gives shape and support, and helps move things around in the cell
.
Tour of a plant cell
Tour of an animal cell
Full transcript